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It is hypothesized that animals living in polluted environments possess antimicrobials to counter pathogenic microbes. The fact that snakes feed on germ-infested rodents suggests that they encounter pathogenic microbes and likely possess antimicrobials. The venom is used only to paralyze the rodent, but the ability of snakes to counter potential infections(More)
Immune responses to the repeat regions of the Plasmodium falciparum antigen Pf155/RESA have been extensively studied, and antibodies to the repeats are known to interfere with parasite growth both in vitro and in vivo. Less is known with regard to the effect on parasites of antibodies to the nonrepeat regions of the antigen. In the present study, rabbits(More)
Acanthamoeba isolation from extreme environments suggests that they may play a role in regulating archaeal densities and contribute to these ecosystems. The purpose of this study was to determine whether Acanthamoeba grow on extremophilic/mesophilic Archaea that are dominant cellular organisms in such environments. Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 and Sulfolobus(More)
Archaeal transcriptional machinery is similar to that of eukaryotes. We studied the fates of various components of the Sulfolobus solfataricus transcriptional apparatus under different stresses and found that in cells incubated at 90 degrees C for 1 h, transcription factor E (TFE) is selectively depleted, but its mRNA levels are increased. We discuss the(More)
Using morphological analysis and biochemical testing, here for the first time, we determined the culturable gut bacterial flora (aerobes and facultative anaerobes) in the venomous Black Cobra (Naja naja karachiensis) from South Asia. The findings revealed that these snakes inhabit potentially pathogenic bacteria including Serratia marcescens, Pseudomonas(More)
In the microbial ecosystem, microbes compete for space and nutrients. Consequently, some have developed the ability to kill or inhibit the growth of other competing microbes by producing antimicrobial substances. As the ‘producer’ species are generally immune to these substances, their compounds act on the competing microbial species and give the producer(More)
Acanthamoeba species are the causative agents of fatal granulomatous encephalitis in humans. Haematogenous spread is thought to be a primary step, followed by blood–brain barrier penetration, in the transmission of Acanthmaoeba into the central nervous system, but the associated molecular mechanisms remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the role of Src, a(More)
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE Linum usitatissimum, commonly known as Flaxseed has traditionally been used for the management of diarrhea and gastrointestinal infections. This study was planned to assess pharmacological basis for the medicinal use of Flaxseed in infectious and non-infectious diarrhea. MATERIALS AND METHODS The crude aqueous-methanolic(More)
Pathophysiology of Escherichia coli sepsis is complex involving circulating bacterial products, cytokine release, and sustained bacteremia resulting in the damage of vascular endothelium. Here, it is shown that E. coli K1 produced cytopathogenicity of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC), that constitute the blood-brain barrier. Whole(More)
The effects of clinically available drugs targeting muscarinic cholinergic, adrenergic, dopaminergic, and serotonergic receptors; intracellular calcium levels and/or the function of calcium-dependent biochemical pathways; ion channels; and cellular pumps were tested against a keratitis isolate of Acanthamoeba castellanii belonging to the T4 genotype. In(More)