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A variety of archaeal lineages have been identified using culture-independent molecular phylogenetic surveys of microbial habitats occurring in deep-sea hydrothermal environments such as chimney structures, sediments, vent emissions, and chemosynthetic macrofauna. With the exception of a few taxa, most of these archaea have not yet been cultivated, and(More)
Microbial diversity and populations in a hydrothermal plume that was present inside the caldera of the Suiyo Seamount, a submarine volcano on the Izu-Bonin Arc, were investigated by performing a phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene and by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Corresponding to transmissivity, an indicator of turbidity, the(More)
Phase-separation and -segregation (boiling/distillation of subseafloor hydrothermal fluids) represent the primary mechanisms causing intra-field variations in vent fluid compositions. To determine whether this geochemical process affects the formation of microbial communities, we examined the microbial communities at three different vent sites located(More)
The abundance, diversity, activity, and composition of microbial communities in sulfide structures both of active and inactive vents were investigated by culture-independent methods. These sulfide structures were collected at four hydrothermal fields, both on- and off-axis of the back-arc spreading center of the Southern Mariana Trough. The microbial(More)
Prokaryote growth temperatures in environmental samples are difficult to measure because it is hard to culture viable prokaryotes in natural environments. We comprehensively surveyed growth temperatures and 16S rRNA sequences of prokaryotes to estimate their growth temperatures based on guanine-plus-cytosine contents (P(GC)) of their 16S rRNA sequences. We(More)
Increasing levels of CO2 in the atmosphere are expected to cause climatic change with negative effects on the earth's ecosystems and human society. Consequently, a variety of CO2 disposal options are discussed, including injection into the deep ocean. Because the dissolution of CO2 in seawater will decrease ambient pH considerably, negative consequences for(More)
To extend knowledge of subseafloor microbial communities within the oceanic crust, the abundance, diversity and composition of microbial communities in crustal fluids at back-arc hydrothermal fields of the Southern Mariana Trough (SMT) were investigated using culture-independent molecular techniques based on 16S rRNA gene sequences. Seafloor drilling was(More)
A cell-fusing hyperthermophilic archaeon was isolated from hydrothermal fluid obtained from Suiyo Seamount of the Izu-Bonin Arc. The isolate, TS1(T), is an irregular coccus, usually 0.5-2 microm in diameter and motile with a polar tuft of flagella. Cells in the exponential phase of growth fused at room temperature in the presence of DNA-intercalating dye to(More)
This study describes the occurrence of unique dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DSR) genes at a depth of 1,380 m from the deep-sea hydrothermal vent field at the Suiyo Seamount, Izu-Bonin Arc, Western Pacific, Japan. The DSR genes were obtained from microbes that grew in a catheter-type in situ growth chamber deployed for 3 days on a vent and from the(More)
International drilling projects for the study of microbial communities in the deep-subsurface hot biosphere have been expanded. Core samples obtained by deep drilling are commonly contaminated with mesophilic microorganisms in the drilling fluid, making it difficult to examine the microbial community by 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis. To eliminate(More)