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Nukacin ISK-1, a type-A(II) lantibiotic, comprises 27 amino acids with a distinct linear N-terminal and a globular C-terminal region. To identify the positional importance or redundancy of individual residues responsible for nukacin ISK-1 antimicrobial activity, we replaced the native codons of the parent peptide with NNK triplet oligonucleotides in order(More)
Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized antimicrobial peptides that commonly target the cell wall precursor lipid II during their antimicrobial mechanism and exert their inhibitory activity by (i) inhibition of cell wall biosynthesis, and (ii) stable pore formation in the target membrane. Type-A(I) (i.e. nisin) and two-component (i.e. lacticin 3147)(More)
We determined the mode of action of nukacin ISK-1. It did not cause membrane potential dissipation or the efflux of ATP or K(+) ions from the cells of a sensitive bacterial strain; however, it blocked the membrane depolarization activity of nisin. Nukacin ISK-1-treated cells had single arrangements of cells without the formation of a complete septum. A(More)
The prepeptide NukA of the lantibiotic nukacin ISK-1 consists of an N-terminal leader peptide followed by a propeptide moiety that undergoes post-translational modifications, that is, formation of unusual amino acids by NukM, cleavage of the leader peptide and transport by NukT to yield a mature peptide. To identify the region and conformation required for(More)
Taking advantage of high-throughput technologies, deep sequencing of the human microbiome has revealed commensal bacteria independent of the ability to culture them. The composition of the commensal microbiome is dependent on bacterial diversity and the state of the host regulated by the immune system. Candida species are well known as components of the(More)
Nukacin D13E (D13E) is a variant of type-A(II) lantibiotic nukacin ISK-1 produced by Staphylococcus warneri ISK-1. D13E exhibited a twofold higher specific antimicrobial activity than nukacin ISK-1 against a number of Gram-positive bacteria. We previously reported the heterologous production of D13E in Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 under the control of(More)
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