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To define the somatotopic arrangement of neurons in the trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis and upper cervical cord activated by acute noxious stimulation of various orofacial sites, pERK expression was analyzed in these neurons. After capsaicin injection into the tongue, lower gum, upper and lower lips, or mental region, pERK-like immunoreactive(More)
Peripheral nerve injury activates satellite cells to produce interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta) which mediates inflammation and hyperalgesia. This study investigated the hypothesis that activation of satellite glial cells modulates the excitability of trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons via IL-1beta following inflammation. Inflammation was induced by injection of(More)
The phosphorylated Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinase (pERK) and Fos expression and masticatory muscle activity were analyzed in rats with capsaicin-induced acute inflammation of the tooth pulp in order to clarify the role of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and upper cervical spinal cord in tooth pulp pain. Digastric and masseteric muscle activities were(More)
It has been reported that the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has a variety of functions relating to pain as well as pain perception. However, the underlying mechanisms for those functions remain unclear. To elucidate the functional role of the ACC in pain perception and pain-related functions such as attention to pain and escape from pain, single neuronal(More)
We studied Fos expression in the central nociceptive pathways at different sedative levels in order to clarify the central mechanism of propofol’s nociceptive action. Sprague–Dawley rats received propofol (PRO) or pentobarbital (PEN) and were divided into two groups with different doses of drug administration (light and deep sedative levels) based on the(More)
Increased expression of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channels, following nerve injury, may facilitate the entry of QX-314 into nociceptive neurons in order to achieve effective and selective pain relief. In this study we hypothesized that the level of QX-314/capsaicin (QX-CAP)--induced blockade of nocifensive behavior could be used(More)
The aim of this study was to investigate whether astroglia in the medullary dorsal horn (trigeminal spinal subnucleus caudalis; Vc) may be involved in orofacial neuropathic pain following trigeminal nerve injury. The effects of intrathecal administration of the astroglial aconitase inhibitor sodium fluoroacetate (FA) were tested on Vc astroglial(More)
Previous studies in several different trigeminal nerve injury/inflammation models indicated that the hyperexcitability of primary afferent neurons contributes to the pain pathway underlying mechanical allodynia. Although multiple types of voltage-gated ion channels are associated with neuronal hyperexcitability, voltage-gated K+ channels (Kv) are one of the(More)
The glial cytokine, interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), potentiates the excitability of nociceptive trigeminal ganglion (TRG) neurons via membrane depolarization following peripheral inflammation. Perforated patch-clamp technique was used this study to show that the mechanism underlying the excitability of small-diameter TRG neurons following inflammation is due(More)
It has not been verified whether allopurinol application is beneficial in decreasing the severity of radiation-induced oral mucositis and dermatitis. Rats were divided into 4 groups and received 15 Gy irradiation on the left whisker pad. Group 1 received only irradiation. Group 2 was maintained by applying allopurinol/carrageenan-mixed gel (allopurinol gel)(More)