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An elevated plus-maze consisting of two open and two enclosed arms was employed for an evaluation of memory in mice. Mice in the plus-maze escaped from the open arm to the enclosed arm because mice apparently dislike open and high spaces. The time it took for the mice to move from the open arm to the enclosed arm (transfer latency) was recorded. The(More)
Learning and memory were previously evaluated by using the elevated plus-maze test in mice. We investigated whether this method could be used for the evaluation of amnesic properties of drugs, including those which alter behavior on the first (training) trial. Six drugs of different types, scopolamine, MK-801(More)
The potentiating effect of low doses of sigma ligands on the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-induced excitation of pyramidal CA3 dorsal hippocampal neurons has recently been reported. In the present study, we investigated behavioral effects relevant to these findings in the experimental amnesia induced by the non-competitive NMDA antagonist, dizocilpine(More)
During anesthesia in mice, both common carotid arteries were tied loosely with an overhand knot suture (an occluder), while two snares (releasers) were placed in the knot so that it could be repeatedly tightened to occlude the arteries and loosened again to allow for reperfusion while the mice were conscious and unrestrained. The incidence of mortality as(More)
RNA silencing is a defense system against "genomic parasites" such as transposable elements (TE), which are potentially harmful to host genomes. In plants, transcripts from TEs induce production of double-stranded RNAs (dsRNAs) and are processed into small RNAs (small interfering RNAs, siRNAs) that suppress TEs by RNA-directed DNA methylation. Thus, the(More)
The effects of i.c.v. injection of the mu-selective opioid receptor agonist DAMGO and the effects of its combination with the endogenous kappa-opioid receptor agonist dynorphin A-(1-13) on memory processes were examined in mice, using spontaneous alternation performance associated with working memory in a Y-maze. DAMGO (10 and/or 30 ng) impaired spontaneous(More)
The effects of intracerebroventricular administration of dynorphin A(1-13) on scopolamine- and pirenzepine-induced amnesia were investigated in mice by observing the step-down-type passive avoidance response and spontaneous alternation performance. The pre- or post-training, or preretention administration of dynorphin A(1-13) (0.3-10 micrograms) alone(More)
In order to facilitate the functional analysis of rice genes, we produced about 50,000 insertion lines with the endogenous retrotransposon Tos17. Phenotypes of these lines in the M2 generation were observed in the field and characterized based on 53 phenotype descriptors. Nearly half of the lines showed more than one mutant phenotype. The most frequently(More)
Transient ischemia produced marked memory dysfunctions in mice on three different tasks, spontaneous alternation, elevated plus-maze and passive avoidance, as tested 1, 1-2, and 2-3 days after ischemic insult, respectively. U-50,488H, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist, administered 20 min before ischemic insult markedly prevented the impairment of spontaneous(More)
Similarity of gene expression across a wide range of biological conditions can be efficiently used in characterization of gene function. We have constructed a rice gene coexpression database, RiceFREND (http://ricefrend.dna.affrc.go.jp/), to identify gene modules with similar expression profiles and provide a platform for more accurate prediction of gene(More)