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With the advent of dense maps of human genetic variation, it is now possible to detect positive natural selection across the human genome. Here we report an analysis of over 3 million polymorphisms from the International HapMap Project Phase 2 (HapMap2). We used 'long-range haplotype' methods, which were developed to identify alleles segregating in a(More)
We report improved whole-genome shotgun sequences for the genomes of indica and japonica rice, both with multimegabase contiguity, or almost 1,000-fold improvement over the drafts of 2002. Tested against a nonredundant collection of 19,079 full-length cDNAs, 97.7% of the genes are aligned, without fragmentation, to the mapped super-scaffolds of one or the(More)
Multiple instance learning (MIL) is a paradigm in supervised learning that deals with the classification of collections of instances called bags. Each bag contains a number of instances from which features are extracted. The complexity of MIL is largely dependent on the number of instances in the training data set. Since we are usually confronted with a(More)
Mutations in Parkin, an E3 ubiquitin ligase that regulates protein turnover, represent one of the major causes of familial Parkinson disease, a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of dopaminergic neurons and impaired mitochondrial functions. The underlying mechanism by which pathogenic Parkin mutations induce mitochondrial abnormality is(More)
Hyperspectral unmixing is a crucial preprocessing step for material classification and recognition. In the last decade, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) and its extensions have been intensively studied to unmix hyperspectral imagery and recover the material end-members. As an important constraint for NMF, sparsity has been modeled making use of the L1(More)
Rice, one of the world's most important food plants, has important syntenic relationships with the other cereal species and is a model plant for the grasses. Here we present a map-based, finished quality sequence that covers 95% of the 389 Mb genome, including virtually all of the euchromatin and two complete centromeres. A total of 37,544(More)
Unbalanced production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferons in immune responses may lead to immunopathology; thus, the mechanisms that ensure the beneficial production of proinflammatory cytokines and type I interferons are of particular importance. Here we demonstrate that the phosphatase SHP-1 negatively regulated Toll-like receptor-mediated(More)
Chemical compounds that interfere with microtubules such as the vinca alkaloids and taxanes are important chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of cancer. As our knowledge of microtubule-targeting drugs increases, we realize that the mechanism underlying the anti-cancer activity of these agents may mainly lie in their inhibitory effects on spindle(More)
The most abundant mRNA post-transcriptional modification is N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A), which has broad roles in RNA biology. In mammalian cells, the asymmetric distribution of m(6)A along mRNAs results in relatively less methylation in the 5' untranslated region (5'UTR) compared to other regions. However, whether and how 5'UTR methylation is regulated is(More)