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The pyruvate kinase isoforms PKM1 and PKM2 are alternatively spliced products of the PKM2 gene. PKM2, but not PKM1, alters glucose metabolism in cancer cells and contributes to tumorigenesis by mechanisms that are not explained by its known biochemical activity. We show that PKM2 gene transcription is activated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). PKM2(More)
The availability of human genome sequence has transformed biomedical research over the past decade. However, an equivalent map for the human proteome with direct measurements of proteins and peptides does not exist yet. Here we present a draft map of the human proteome using high-resolution Fourier-transform mass spectrometry. In-depth proteomic profiling(More)
We have developed NetPath as a resource of curated human signaling pathways. As an initial step, NetPath provides detailed maps of a number of immune signaling pathways, which include approximately 1,600 reactions annotated from the literature and more than 2,800 instances of transcriptionally regulated genes - all linked to over 5,500 published articles.(More)
We present the first analysis of the human proteome with regard to interactions between proteins. We also compare the human interactome with the available interaction datasets from yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae), worm (Caenorhabditis elegans) and fly (Drosophila melanogaster). Of >70,000 binary interactions, only 42 were common to human, worm and fly, and(More)
Targeted transport of messenger RNA and local protein synthesis near the synapse are important for synaptic plasticity. In order to gain an overview of the composition of the dendritic mRNA pool, we dissected out stratum radiatum (dendritic lamina) from rat hippocampal CA1 region and compared its mRNA content with that of stratum pyramidale (cell body(More)
Regulatory RNAs have been suggested to contribute to the control of gene expression in eukaryotes. Brain cytoplasmic (BC) RNAs are regulatory RNAs that control translation initiation. We now report that neuronal BC1 RNA plays an instrumental role in the protein-synthesis-dependent implementation of neuronal excitation-repression equilibria. BC1 repression(More)
Mutations in leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) are a common cause of familial and sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). Elevated LRRK2 kinase activity and neurodegeneration are linked, but the phosphosubstrate that connects LRRK2 kinase activity to neurodegeneration is not known. Here, we show that ribosomal protein s15 is a key pathogenic LRRK2 substrate(More)
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES Abnormal muscle response (AMR) to the electrical stimulation of a branch of facial nerve is a specific electrophysiological feature of primary hemifacial spasm (HFS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of AMR monitoring during microvascular decompression surgery (MVD), and the correlation between the AMR changes and(More)
Hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that mediate adaptive responses to reduced oxygen availability. HIF-alpha subunits are stabilized under conditions of acute hypoxia. However, prolonged hypoxia leads to decay of HIF-1alpha but not HIF-2alpha protein levels by unknown mechanisms. Here, we identify Hsp70 and CHIP (carboxyl terminus of(More)
BACKGROUND Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a progressive lung disease with poor prognosis. The kinase inhibitor nintedanib specific for vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) significantly reduced the rate of decline of forced vital capacity(More)