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A 2.91-billion base pair (bp) consensus sequence of the euchromatic portion of the human genome was generated by the whole-genome shotgun sequencing method. The 14.8-billion bp DNA sequence was generated over 9 months from 27,271,853 high-quality sequence reads (5.11-fold coverage of the genome) from both ends of plasmid clones made from the DNA of five(More)
The fly Drosophila melanogaster is one of the most intensively studied organisms in biology and serves as a model system for the investigation of many developmental and cellular processes common to higher eukaryotes, including humans. We have determined the nucleotide sequence of nearly all of the approximately 120-megabase euchromatic portion of the(More)
ATF6 is a membrane-bound transcription factor that activates genes in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. When unfolded proteins accumulate in the ER, ATF6 is cleaved to release its cytoplasmic domain, which enters the nucleus. Here, we show that ATF6 is processed by Site-1 protease (S1P) and Site-2 protease (S2P), the enzymes that process(More)
We report the cloning of a gene, S2P, that encodes a putative metalloprotease required for intramembrane proteolysis of sterol-regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) at Site-2. SREBPs are membrane-bound transcription factors that activate genes regulating cholesterol metabolism. The active NH2-terminal domains of SREBPs are released from membranes by(More)
Vanadium is a metal widely distributed in the environment. Although vanadate-containing compounds exert potent toxic effects on a wide variety of biological systems, the mechanisms controlling vanadate-induced adverse effects remain to be elucidated. The present study investigated the vanadate-induced p53 activation and involvement of reactive oxygen(More)
Apoptosis is a programmed cell death mechanism to control cell number in tissues and to eliminate individual cells that may lead to disease states. The present study investigates chromium(VI) (Cr(VI))-induced apoptosis and the role of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and p53 in this response. Treatment of human lung epithelial cells (A549) with Cr(VI) caused(More)
The present study investigates whether reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in p53 activation, and if they are, which species is responsible for the activation. Our hypothesis is that hydroxyl radical (.OH) functions as a messenger for the activation of this tumor suppressor protein. Human lung epithelial cells (A549) were used to test this(More)
Incubation of chromium(VI) [Cr(VI)] with cultured Jurkat cells resulted in activation of DNA binding activity of the nuclear factor (NF)-kappa B. In a combination with glutathione reductase, a Cr(VI) reducing agent, Cr(VI) expressed an enhanced activity in induction of NF-kappa B. This activation of NF-kappa B was decreased by a metal chelator,(More)
There is interest in how altered lipid metabolism could contribute to muscle insulin resistance. Many animal and human states of insulin resistance have increased muscle triglyceride content, and there are now plausible mechanistic links between muscle lipid accumulation and insulin resistance, which go beyond the classic glucose-fatty acid cycle. We(More)