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Previous studies have indicated that interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta) is involved not only in immune modulation, but also in the modulation of pain in both the peripheral and central nervous systems. The current study investigated the expression of IL-1 beta in the brain of rats with spared nerve injury (SNI), using immunohistochemical technique. The results(More)
gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main neuroinhibitory transmitter in the brain. Here we show that GABA in the extracellular space may affect the fate of pathogenic T lymphocytes entering the brain. We examined in encephalitogenic T cells if they expressed functional GABA channels that could be activated by the low (nM-1 microM), physiological(More)
The pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) is associated with the generation of inflammatory and neuropathic pain. The current study aims to investigate the expression of TNF-α in the brain of rats with spared nerve injury (SNI), a neuropathic pain model with the lesion of common peroneal and tibial nerves. Two weeks following SNI, the(More)
Our previous studies have shown that pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) in red nucleus (RN) are involved in the development of neuropathic pain and play facilitated roles on the mechanical allodynia induced by peripheral nerve injury. The current study was designed to evaluate the expression and(More)
Nerve growth factor (NGF), a member of the neurotrophin family, is essential for the development and maintenance of sensory neurons and for the formation of central pain circuitry. The current study was designed to evaluate the expression of NGF in the brain of rats with spared nerve injury (SNI), using immunohistochemical technique. The results showed that(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the red nucleus (RN) plays facilitated roles in the development of abnormal pain. Here, the roles of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) in TNF-α-evoked(More)
Previous studies have demonstrated that tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the red nucleus (RN) plays a facilitated role in the development of neuropathic pain. Here, the protein levels and roles of two different TNF receptors, p55 type 1 (TNFR1) and p75 type 2 (TNFR2), in the RN of rats with spared nerve injury (SNI) were investigated.(More)
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 6 (SCA6) is caused by polyglutamine expansion in P/Q-type Ca2+ channels (Ca(v)2.1) and is characterized by predominant degeneration of cerebellar Purkinje cells. To characterize the Ca(v)2.1 channel with an SCA6 mutation in cerebellar Purkinje cells, we have generated knock-in mouse models that express human Ca(v)2.1 with 28(More)
Neurodegenerative diseases have been linked to inflammation, but whether altered immunomodulation plays a causative role in neurodegeneration is not clear. We show that lack of cytokine interferon-β (IFN-β) signaling causes spontaneous neurodegeneration in the absence of neurodegenerative disease-causing mutant proteins. Mice lacking Ifnb function exhibited(More)
Previous studies have indicated that interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha) can bind to opioid receptors and exerts an antinociceptive effect in both peripheral and central nervous systems. The current study investigated the antinociceptive effect of IFN-alpha unilaterally microinjected into the thalamic nucleus submedius (Sm) of rats on noxious thermal stimulus, and(More)