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Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which include the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are involved in the innate immune response to infection. TLR4 is a model for the TLR family and is the main LPS receptor. We wanted to determine the expression of TLR4 and compare it with that of TLR2 and CD14 along the gastrointestinal mucosa of normal and colitic BALB/c(More)
To establish an in vivo experimental system for developmental endocrinology research, AtT-20 cells, a corticotropic tumor cell line, were transplanted by exo utero manipulation into mouse embryos on embryonic day 14. The induced tumor secreted ACTH in situ, and the circulating ACTH level was elevated. This was the first model for studying the regulation of(More)
Type 1 diabetes, a multifactorial disease involving genetic and environmental factors, results from the destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. The maternal environment has been suggested to be important in the development of diabetes. To assess the role of maternal factors in the development of insulitis and overt diabetes, we transplanted pre-implantation(More)
Leptin is detected in the sera, and leptin receptors are expressed in the cerebrum of mouse embryos, suggesting that leptin plays a role in cerebral development. Compared with the wild type, leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice had fewer cells at embryonic day (E) 16 and E18 and had fewer 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine(+) cells at E14 and E16 in the neuroepithelium.(More)
Leptin is a hormone that reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure by acting on the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. Recent studies indicated that the neuronal circuit related to food intake in the hypothalamus is formed in the neonatal period and that leptin is necessary for the formation of this circuit. Our studies have further suggested(More)
Despite extensive studies on the crucial functions of Ras and c-Myc in cellular proliferation and transformation, their roles in regulating cell adhesion are not yet fully understood. Involvement of Ras in modulating integrin activity by inside-out signaling has been recently reported. However, in contrast to R-Ras, H-Ras was found to exhibit a suppressive(More)
The receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 acts as a receptor for Wnt5a to mediate noncanonical Wnt signaling, and it plays essential roles in morphogenesis. Ror2-/- embryos exhibit phenotypes similar to, albeit generally milder than, those of Wnt5a-/- embryos. During mouse embryogenesis, Ror2 is expressed in various organs and regions, although little is known(More)
The external globus pallidus (GP) is known as a relay nucleus of the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. Recent studies in dopamine-depleted and healthy rats indicate that the GP comprises two main types of pallidofugal neurons: the so-called “prototypic” and “arkypallidal” neurons. However, the reconstruction of complete arkypallidal neurons in healthy(More)
This study was aimed to evaluate the source of endothelin-1 (ET-1) in cirrhotic patients. ET-1 is implicated in the pathogenesis of portal hypertension. However, the mechanism and source for increased plasma ET-1 in cirrhotic patients are still obscure. Plasma ET-1 levels in systemic (SV), superior mesenteric (SMV), and splenic venous (SPV) blood were(More)
To determine the effect of intranasal administration of salmon calcitonin on glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis in children with nephrosis, we gave 100 U of calcitonin intranasally on alternate days with 1 alpha-hydroxyvitamin D3 to five children, 8 to 12 years of age, with frequently relapsing nephrosis. Four patients with osteoporosis, 10 to 14 years of(More)