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Leptin is detected in the sera, and leptin receptors are expressed in the cerebrum of mouse embryos, suggesting that leptin plays a role in cerebral development. Compared with the wild type, leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice had fewer cells at embryonic day (E) 16 and E18 and had fewer 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine(+) cells at E14 and E16 in the neuroepithelium.(More)
The receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 acts as a receptor for Wnt5a to mediate noncanonical Wnt signaling, and it plays essential roles in morphogenesis. Ror2-/- embryos exhibit phenotypes similar to, albeit generally milder than, those of Wnt5a-/- embryos. During mouse embryogenesis, Ror2 is expressed in various organs and regions, although little is known(More)
Type 1 diabetes, a multifactorial disease involving genetic and environmental factors, results from the destruction of pancreatic beta-cells. The maternal environment has been suggested to be important in the development of diabetes. To assess the role of maternal factors in the development of insulitis and overt diabetes, we transplanted pre-implantation(More)
The external globus pallidus (GP) is known as a relay nucleus of the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia. Recent studies in dopamine-depleted and healthy rats indicate that the GP comprises two main types of pallidofugal neurons: the so-called “prototypic” and “arkypallidal” neurons. However, the reconstruction of complete arkypallidal neurons in healthy(More)
Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which include the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are involved in the innate immune response to infection. TLR4 is a model for the TLR family and is the main LPS receptor. We wanted to determine the expression of TLR4 and compare it with that of TLR2 and CD14 along the gastrointestinal mucosa of normal and colitic BALB/c(More)
OBJECTIVE Leptin, which is an obese gene product, decreases appetite and increases energy expenditure in adults. In our previous study, leptin was found to maintain neural stem cells and/or progenitor cells, preferentially astrocyte/oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, whereas it reduces the proportion of oligodendrocyte lineage-restricted precursor cells. It(More)
Using a mouse exo utero system to examine the effects of fetal jaw movement on the development of condylar cartilage, we assessed the effects of restraint of the animals' mouths from opening, by suture, at embryonic day (E)15.5. We hypothesized that pre-natal jaw movement is an important mechanical factor in endochondral bone formation of the mandibular(More)
Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes is mediated by translocation of vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular storage sites to the cell periphery and the subsequent fusion of these vesicles with the plasma membrane, resulting in the externalization of GLUT4. Fusion of the GLUT4-containing vesicles with the plasma(More)
The long form of the leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) has a cytoplasmic domain which activates the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway. It is related to appetite and energy expenditure and is expressed in various parts of the brain in adults. In embryos, however, the detailed distribution of Ob-Rb expression sites and the function of the leptin-Ob-Rb system remain(More)
Leptin is a hormone that reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure by acting on the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. Recent studies indicated that the neuronal circuit related to food intake in the hypothalamus is formed in the neonatal period and that leptin is necessary for the formation of this circuit. Our studies have further suggested(More)