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Pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which include the Toll-like receptors (TLRs), are involved in the innate immune response to infection. TLR4 is a model for the TLR family and is the main LPS receptor. We wanted to determine the expression of TLR4 and compare it with that of TLR2 and CD14 along the gastrointestinal mucosa of normal and colitic BALB/c(More)
The receptor tyrosine kinase Ror2 acts as a receptor for Wnt5a to mediate noncanonical Wnt signaling, and it plays essential roles in morphogenesis. Ror2-/- embryos exhibit phenotypes similar to, albeit generally milder than, those of Wnt5a-/- embryos. During mouse embryogenesis, Ror2 is expressed in various organs and regions, although little is known(More)
Insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in adipocytes is mediated by translocation of vesicles containing the glucose transporter GLUT4 from intracellular storage sites to the cell periphery and the subsequent fusion of these vesicles with the plasma membrane, resulting in the externalization of GLUT4. Fusion of the GLUT4-containing vesicles with the plasma(More)
Leptin is detected in the sera, and leptin receptors are expressed in the cerebrum of mouse embryos, suggesting that leptin plays a role in cerebral development. Compared with the wild type, leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice had fewer cells at embryonic day (E) 16 and E18 and had fewer 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine(+) cells at E14 and E16 in the neuroepithelium.(More)
Trefoil factor family 2 (TFF2) is a small peptide constitutively expressed in the gastric mucosa, where it plays a protective role in restitution of gastric mucosa. TFF2 has also been shown to be expressed in some gastric cancers, but its role in tumor metastasis and patient prognosis has not been examined. In this study, we examined TFF2 expression at both(More)
BACKGROUND Regenerating gene I (REG) was identified as a growth factor for pancreatic islet beta cells. Enhanced REG expression was observed during the healing of gastric mucosa. REG expression was observed in various tumors including gastric carcinoma, but to the authors' knowledge, the correlation between REG expression and clinicopathologic(More)
To establish an in vivo experimental system for developmental endocrinology research, AtT-20 cells, a corticotropic tumor cell line, were transplanted by exo utero manipulation into mouse embryos on embryonic day 14. The induced tumor secreted ACTH in situ, and the circulating ACTH level was elevated. This was the first model for studying the regulation of(More)
Despite extensive studies on the crucial functions of Ras and c-Myc in cellular proliferation and transformation, their roles in regulating cell adhesion are not yet fully understood. Involvement of Ras in modulating integrin activity by inside-out signaling has been recently reported. However, in contrast to R-Ras, H-Ras was found to exhibit a suppressive(More)
The long form of the leptin receptor (Ob-Rb) has a cytoplasmic domain which activates the JAK-STAT signal transduction pathway. It is related to appetite and energy expenditure and is expressed in various parts of the brain in adults. In embryos, however, the detailed distribution of Ob-Rb expression sites and the function of the leptin-Ob-Rb system remain(More)
Leptin is a hormone that reduces food intake and increases energy expenditure by acting on the arcuate nucleus in the hypothalamus. Recent studies indicated that the neuronal circuit related to food intake in the hypothalamus is formed in the neonatal period and that leptin is necessary for the formation of this circuit. Our studies have further suggested(More)