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In all animal cells, phospholipids are asymmetrically distributed between the outer and inner leaflets of the plasma membrane. This asymmetrical phospholipid distribution is disrupted in various biological systems. For example, when blood platelets are activated, they expose phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) to trigger the clotting system. The PtdSer exposure is(More)
A classic feature of apoptotic cells is the cell-surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) as an "eat me" signal for engulfment. We show that the Xk-family protein Xkr8 mediates PtdSer exposure in response to apoptotic stimuli. Mouse Xkr8(-/-) cells or human cancer cells in which Xkr8 expression was repressed by hypermethylation failed to expose(More)
Long interspersed elements (LINEs) are transposable elements that proliferate within eukaryotic genomes, having a large impact on eukaryotic genome evolution. LINEs mobilize via a process called retrotransposition. Although the role of the LINE-encoded protein(s) in retrotransposition has been extensively investigated, the participation of host-encoded(More)
BACKGROUND TMEM16A and 16B work as Cl(-) channel, whereas 16F works as phospholipid scramblase. The function of other TMEM16 members is unknown. RESULTS Using TMEM16F(-/-) cells, TMEM16C, 16D, 16F, 16G, and 16J were shown to be lipid scramblases. CONCLUSION Some TMEM16 members are divided into two Cl(-) channels and five lipid scramblases. (More)
Interactions between inflammatory infiltrates and resident tubular epithelial cells may play important roles in the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis, by promoting epithelial cell-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (EMT). Human proximal tubular epithelial cells transdifferentiated to myofibroblasts after treatment with activated PBMC conditioned(More)
Horizontal basal cells (HBCs) have garnered attention as tissue stem cells of the olfactory epithelium (OE); however, these cells' exact lineage and their contributions to OE regeneration remain unknown. Neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs) have been shown to possess stem cell properties and to participate in the normal development of the OE. However, the(More)
Recent work shows that acoustic overexposures causing only transient threshold elevation, and no hair cell loss, nevertheless can cause irreversible loss of the synapses between inner hair cells and cochlear nerve fibers (Kujawa and Liberman 2009). This cochlear synaptopathy, which is selective for the subset of sensory fibers with high thresholds and low(More)
BACKGROUND In vitro studies suggest that angiotensin II type 1 and type 2 (AT1 and AT2) receptors exert opposite effects in terms of vasoconstriction, natriuresis, and cell growth, but the role of these receptors in cardiovascular remodeling in vivo is still an enigma. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that AT2 exerts an antiproliferative effect by(More)
BACKGROUND The role of angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 (AT2) receptor in atherosclerosis was explored with the use of AT2 receptor/apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-double-knockout (AT2/ApoE-DKO) mice, with a focus on oxidative stress. METHODS AND RESULTS After treatment with a high-cholesterol diet (1.25% cholesterol) for 10 weeks, ApoE-knockout (KO) mice developed(More)
To clarify the possible involvement of uninhibited angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 (AT(2)) receptor stimulation in the effects of an Ang II type 1 (AT(1)) receptor blocker, valsartan, we examined the cardiovascular remodeling induced by aortic banding with the use of wild-type (Agtr2+) and AT(2) receptor null (Agtr2-) mice. Aortic banding caused cardiac(More)