Learn More
In all animal cells, phospholipids are asymmetrically distributed between the outer and inner leaflets of the plasma membrane. This asymmetrical phospholipid distribution is disrupted in various biological systems. For example, when blood platelets are activated, they expose phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) to trigger the clotting system. The PtdSer exposure is(More)
A classic feature of apoptotic cells is the cell-surface exposure of phosphatidylserine (PtdSer) as an "eat me" signal for engulfment. We show that the Xk-family protein Xkr8 mediates PtdSer exposure in response to apoptotic stimuli. Mouse Xkr8(-/-) cells or human cancer cells in which Xkr8 expression was repressed by hypermethylation failed to expose(More)
Long interspersed elements (LINEs) are transposable elements that proliferate within eukaryotic genomes, having a large impact on eukaryotic genome evolution. LINEs mobilize via a process called retrotransposition. Although the role of the LINE-encoded protein(s) in retrotransposition has been extensively investigated, the participation of host-encoded(More)
BACKGROUND TMEM16A and 16B work as Cl(-) channel, whereas 16F works as phospholipid scramblase. The function of other TMEM16 members is unknown. RESULTS Using TMEM16F(-/-) cells, TMEM16C, 16D, 16F, 16G, and 16J were shown to be lipid scramblases. CONCLUSION Some TMEM16 members are divided into two Cl(-) channels and five lipid scramblases. (More)
Interactions between inflammatory infiltrates and resident tubular epithelial cells may play important roles in the development of tubulointerstitial fibrosis, by promoting epithelial cell-myofibroblast transdifferentiation (EMT). Human proximal tubular epithelial cells transdifferentiated to myofibroblasts after treatment with activated PBMC conditioned(More)
Horizontal basal cells (HBCs) have garnered attention as tissue stem cells of the olfactory epithelium (OE); however, these cells' exact lineage and their contributions to OE regeneration remain unknown. Neural crest-derived cells (NCDCs) have been shown to possess stem cell properties and to participate in the normal development of the OE. However, the(More)
Recent work shows that acoustic overexposures causing only transient threshold elevation, and no hair cell loss, nevertheless can cause irreversible loss of the synapses between inner hair cells and cochlear nerve fibers (Kujawa and Liberman 2009). This cochlear synaptopathy, which is selective for the subset of sensory fibers with high thresholds and low(More)
Peptide YY (PYY)(3-36), a neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y2 receptor agonist, is a powerful inhibitor of intestinal secretion. Based on this anti-secretory effect, NPY Y2 receptor agonists may be useful as novel anti-diarrheal agents, but anti-diarrheal efficacy has yet to be determined. We therefore examined the anti-diarrheal efficacy of PYY(3-36) and a selective(More)
Retinitis pigmentosa comprises a group of inherited retinal photoreceptor degenerations that lead to progressive loss of vision. Although in most cases rods, but not cones, harbor the deleterious gene mutations, cones do die in this disease, usually after the main phase of rod cell loss. Rod photoreceptor death is characterized by apoptotic features. In(More)
Background: TMEM16A and 16B work as Cl-channel, while 16F works as phospholipid-scramblase. Function of other TMEM16 members is unknown. and 16J were shown to be lipid scramblases. Conclusion: Some TMEM16 members are divided into two Cl-channels and five lipid-scramblases. Significance: Learning biochemical function of TMEM16 family members is essential to(More)