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Guidance cues along the longitudinal axis of the CNS are poorly understood. Wnt proteins attract ascending somatosensory axons to project from the spinal cord to the brain. Here we show that Wnt proteins repel corticospinal tract (CST) axons in the opposite direction. Several Wnt genes were found to be expressed in the mouse spinal cord gray matter, cupping(More)
Computational modelling has suggested that at least two counteracting forces are required for establishing topographic maps. Ephrin-family proteins are required for both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral topographic mapping, but the opposing forces have not been well characterized. Wnt-family proteins are recently discovered axon guidance cues. We find(More)
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is the most frequent cause of hereditary grand mal seizures. We previously mapped and narrowed a region associated with JME on chromosome 6p12-p11 (EJM1). Here, we describe a new gene in this region, EFHC1, which encodes a protein with an EF-hand motif. Mutation analyses identified five missense mutations in EFHC1 that(More)
It has been demonstrated that inhaled fine (d < 2.5 microm) and ultrafine (d < 100 nm) particles produce more severe toxicity than coarse particles. Some recent data support the concept that the central nervous system (CNS) may be a target for the inhaled fine particulates. This work describes initial observation of the transport of intranasally instilled(More)
The classical multichannel sampling theorem for common bandlimited signals has been extended differently to fractional bandlimited signals associated with the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT). However, the implementation of those existing extensions is inefficient because of the effect of spectral leakage and hardware complexity. The purpose of this(More)
The sites of origin of alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH)-containing axonal components in the lateral area of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) were studied in the rat by the retrograde tracing method of horseradish peroxidase, combined with the immunocytochemical technique. The results indicated that alpha-MSH-containing axonal(More)
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. The termination of GABA transmission is through the action of a family of membrane proteins, called GABA transporters (GAT1-4). It is well established that GABA system is involved in the modulation of memory. Our previous study showed that homozygous GAT1(-/-)(More)
High blood pressure (BP, hypertension) is a leading chronic condition in China and has become the main risk factor for many high-risk diseases, such as heart attacks. However, the platform for chronic disease measurement and management is still lacking, especially for underserved Chinese. To achieve the early diagnosis of hypertension, one BP monitoring(More)
Xylose fermentation is necessary for the bioconversion of lignocellulose to ethanol as fuel, but wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains cannot fully metabolize xylose. Several efforts have been made to obtain microbial strains with enhanced xylose fermentation. However, xylose fermentation remains a serious challenge because of the complexity of(More)