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Guidance cues along the longitudinal axis of the CNS are poorly understood. Wnt proteins attract ascending somatosensory axons to project from the spinal cord to the brain. Here we show that Wnt proteins repel corticospinal tract (CST) axons in the opposite direction. Several Wnt genes were found to be expressed in the mouse spinal cord gray matter, cupping(More)
Computational modelling has suggested that at least two counteracting forces are required for establishing topographic maps. Ephrin-family proteins are required for both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral topographic mapping, but the opposing forces have not been well characterized. Wnt-family proteins are recently discovered axon guidance cues. We find(More)
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is the most frequent cause of hereditary grand mal seizures. We previously mapped and narrowed a region associated with JME on chromosome 6p12-p11 (EJM1). Here, we describe a new gene in this region, EFHC1, which encodes a protein with an EF-hand motif. Mutation analyses identified five missense mutations in EFHC1 that(More)
OBJECTIVE In metazoans, target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) plays the key role in nutrient- and hormone-dependent control of metabolism. However, the role of TORC1 in regulation of triglyceride storage and metabolism remains largely unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this study, we analyzed the effect of activation and inhibition of the mammalian(More)
Impaired translocation of the glucose transporter isoform 4 (Glut4) to the plasma membrane in fat and skeletal muscle cells may represent a primary defect in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glut4 is localized in specialized storage vesicles (GSVs), the biological nature and biogenesis of which are not known. Here, we report that GSVs are formed(More)
Glut4 storage vesicles (GSVs) represent translocation-competent vesicular carriers in fat and skeletal muscle cells that deliver Glut4 to the plasma membrane in response to insulin stimulation. GSVs include three major cargo proteins: Glut4, insulin-responsive aminopeptidase (IRAP), and sortilin. Previous work has suggested that the lumenal interaction(More)
The classical multichannel sampling theorem for common bandlimited signals has been extended differently to fractional bandlimited signals associated with the fractional Fourier transform (FRFT). However, the implementation of those existing extensions is inefficient because of the effect of spectral leakage and hardware complexity. The purpose of this(More)
Xylose fermentation is necessary for the bioconversion of lignocellulose to ethanol as fuel, but wild-type Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains cannot fully metabolize xylose. Several efforts have been made to obtain microbial strains with enhanced xylose fermentation. However, xylose fermentation remains a serious challenge because of the complexity of(More)
Conventional chemotherapy not only kills tumor cells but also changes gene expression in treatment-damaged tissues, inducing production of multiple tumor-supporting secreted factors. This secretory phenotype was found here to be mediated in part by a damage-inducible cell-cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A). We developed small-molecule compounds that inhibit(More)
γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. The termination of GABA transmission is through the action of a family of membrane proteins, called GABA transporters (GAT1-4). It is well established that GABA system is involved in the modulation of memory. Our previous study showed that homozygous GAT1(-/-)(More)