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Guidance cues along the longitudinal axis of the CNS are poorly understood. Wnt proteins attract ascending somatosensory axons to project from the spinal cord to the brain. Here we show that Wnt proteins repel corticospinal tract (CST) axons in the opposite direction. Several Wnt genes were found to be expressed in the mouse spinal cord gray matter, cupping(More)
OBJECTIVE In metazoans, target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) plays the key role in nutrient- and hormone-dependent control of metabolism. However, the role of TORC1 in regulation of triglyceride storage and metabolism remains largely unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this study, we analyzed the effect of activation and inhibition of the mammalian(More)
Computational modelling has suggested that at least two counteracting forces are required for establishing topographic maps. Ephrin-family proteins are required for both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral topographic mapping, but the opposing forces have not been well characterized. Wnt-family proteins are recently discovered axon guidance cues. We find(More)
Impaired translocation of the glucose transporter isoform 4 (Glut4) to the plasma membrane in fat and skeletal muscle cells may represent a primary defect in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glut4 is localized in specialized storage vesicles (GSVs), the biological nature and biogenesis of which are not known. Here, we report that GSVs are formed(More)
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is the most frequent cause of hereditary grand mal seizures. We previously mapped and narrowed a region associated with JME on chromosome 6p12-p11 (EJM1). Here, we describe a new gene in this region, EFHC1, which encodes a protein with an EF-hand motif. Mutation analyses identified five missense mutations in EFHC1 that(More)
Finnish wood heat treatment technology, ThermoWood, was recently introduced to Québec, Canada by Ohlin Thermo Tech. Subsequently, a large number of initial trials were conducted on five commercially important Québec wood species, spruce (Picea spp.), pine (Pinus spp.), fir (Abies spp.), aspen (Populus spp.), and birch (Betula spp.). These species were(More)
Glut4 storage vesicles (GSVs) represent translocation-competent vesicular carriers in fat and skeletal muscle cells that deliver Glut4 to the plasma membrane in response to insulin stimulation. GSVs include three major cargo proteins: Glut4, insulin-responsive aminopeptidase (IRAP), and sortilin. Previous work has suggested that the lumenal interaction(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) is critical in myocardial pathogenesis, mostly via stimulating NADPH oxidase. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has recently been shown to play important roles in modulating myocardial oxidative stress and contractility. Here, we examine whether nNOS is regulated by Ang II and affects NADPH oxidase production of intracellular(More)
Mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a prodrug of the immunosuppressive agent mycophenolic acid (MPA), is widely used for prophylaxis of solid organ transplant rejection. MPA is primarily metabolized to 7-O-mycophenolic acid glucuronide (MPAG), an inactive metabolite that undergoes enterohepatic recirculation (EHC). This study assessed ethnic differences in the(More)
BACKGROUND Previous reports showed that outcome of rabbit antithymocyte globulin (rATG) was not satisfactory as the first-line therapy for severe aplastic anemia (SAA). We explored a modifying schedule of administration of rATG. DESIGN AND METHODS Outcomes of a cohort of 175 SAA patients, including 51 patients administered with standard protocol (3.55(More)