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Guidance cues along the longitudinal axis of the CNS are poorly understood. Wnt proteins attract ascending somatosensory axons to project from the spinal cord to the brain. Here we show that Wnt proteins repel corticospinal tract (CST) axons in the opposite direction. Several Wnt genes were found to be expressed in the mouse spinal cord gray matter, cupping(More)
Computational modelling has suggested that at least two counteracting forces are required for establishing topographic maps. Ephrin-family proteins are required for both anterior-posterior and medial-lateral topographic mapping, but the opposing forces have not been well characterized. Wnt-family proteins are recently discovered axon guidance cues. We find(More)
Impaired translocation of the glucose transporter isoform 4 (Glut4) to the plasma membrane in fat and skeletal muscle cells may represent a primary defect in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Glut4 is localized in specialized storage vesicles (GSVs), the biological nature and biogenesis of which are not known. Here, we report that GSVs are formed(More)
OBJECTIVE In metazoans, target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) plays the key role in nutrient- and hormone-dependent control of metabolism. However, the role of TORC1 in regulation of triglyceride storage and metabolism remains largely unknown. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In this study, we analyzed the effect of activation and inhibition of the mammalian(More)
*Department of Gastroenterology, Xinhua Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and Department of Gastroenterology, Shanghai First People’s Hospital, Shanghai, Liver Research Center, Beijing Friendship Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing, Department of Gastroenterology, First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang(More)
In mammals, cytosolic sensors retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs) activate multiple signaling cascades initiating IFN-α/β expression. IFN regulatory factor 3 (IRF3) is required for the activation of IFN-β, which, in turn, primes the expression of most IFN-α genes by IFN-induced IRF7 through the STAT1 pathway. In fish, RIG-I(More)
Juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME) is the most frequent cause of hereditary grand mal seizures. We previously mapped and narrowed a region associated with JME on chromosome 6p12-p11 (EJM1). Here, we describe a new gene in this region, EFHC1, which encodes a protein with an EF-hand motif. Mutation analyses identified five missense mutations in EFHC1 that(More)
Molecular mechanisms underlying sarcopenia, the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, remain unclear. To identify molecular changes that correlated best with sarcopenia and might contribute to its pathogenesis, we determined global gene expression profiles in muscles of rats aged 6, 12, 18, 21, 24, and 27 months. These rats exhibit(More)
Sonomyography (SMG) is the signal we previously termed to describe muscle contraction using real-time muscle thickness changes extracted from ultrasound images. In this paper, we used least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) to predict dynamic wrist angles from SMG signals. Synchronized wrist angle and SMG signals(More)
Conventional chemotherapy not only kills tumor cells but also changes gene expression in treatment-damaged tissues, inducing production of multiple tumor-supporting secreted factors. This secretory phenotype was found here to be mediated in part by a damage-inducible cell-cycle inhibitor p21 (CDKN1A). We developed small-molecule compounds that inhibit(More)