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Statins have been widely used for the treatment of a variety of conditions beyond their original role in lowering cholesterol. Since statins have relatively few side effects, they have been recognized as useful medicine to ameliorate neurodegenerative disorders. Current studies on the applications of statins have demonstrated their neuroprotective and(More)
BACKGROUND In addition to their original applications to lowering cholesterol, statins display multiple neuroprotective effects. N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors interact closely with the dopaminergic system and are strongly implicated in therapeutic paradigms of Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aims to investigate how simvastatin impacts on(More)
BACKGROUND In addition to their original applications for lowering cholesterol, statins display multiple neuroprotective effects. Inflammatory reactions and the PI3K/AKT/caspase 3 pathway are strongly implicated in dopaminergic neuronal death in Parkinson's disease (PD). This study aims to investigate how simvastatin affects 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned PC12(More)
Cognitive dysfunction is one of the most typical characteristics in various neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease (advanced stage). Although several mechanisms like neuronal apoptosis and inflammatory responses have been recognized to be involved in the pathogenesis of cognitive dysfunction in these diseases, recent(More)
This study investigates the impact of simvastatin on neuroinflammation in experimental parkinsonian cell models. 6-Hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-treated pheochromocytoma-12 (PC12) cells were used to investigate the neuroprotective nature of simvastatin. After incubation with 6-OHDA, simvastatin, and/or N-methyl-D-aspartic acid receptor 1 (NMDAR1) siRNA for 24(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common age‑related neurodegenerative diseases, which results from a number of environmental and inherited factors. PD is characterized by the slow progressive degeneration of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. The nigrostriatal DA neurons are particularly vulnerable to inflammatory attack.(More)
BACKGROUND The elevation of plasma homocysteine (Hcy) and C-reactive protein (CRP) has been correlated to an increased risk of Parkinson's disease (PD) or vascular diseases. The association and clinical relevance of a combined assessment of Hcy and CRP levels in patients with PD and vascular parkinsonism (VP) are unknown. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS We(More)
The epidemic and experimental studies have confirmed that the obesity induced by high-fat diet not only caused neuronal insulin resistance, but also induced brain mitochondrial dysfunction as well as learning impairment in mice. Naringin has been reported to posses biological functions which are beneficial to human cognitions, but its protective effects on(More)
Statins can induce neuroprotective effects by various mechanisms, such as by lowering cholesterol levels; decreasing β-amyloid production, serum apolipoprotein E (APOE) levels, and anti-inflammatory responses; modifying cognition-related receptors, and augmenting endothelial nitric oxide synthase. The use of statins has been related to many(More)
INTRODUCTION Heart failure (HF) is always complicated with anemia and is associated with bad prognosis in this patient population. Several studies have assessed the potential role of erythropoietin-stimulating agent (ESA) in improving cardiac function and reducing the number of hospitalizations in anemic patients with HF. AIM We performed a meta-analysis(More)