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The Human Metabolome Database (HMDB, http://www.hmdb.ca) is a richly annotated resource that is designed to address the broad needs of biochemists, clinical chemists, physicians, medical geneticists, nutritionists and members of the metabolomics community. Since its first release in 2007, the HMDB has been used to facilitate the research for nearly 100(More)
Continuing improvements in analytical technology along with an increased interest in performing comprehensive, quantitative metabolic profiling, is leading to increased interest pressures within the metabolomics community to develop centralized metabolite reference resources for certain clinically important biofluids, such as cerebrospinal fluid, urine and(More)
BACKGROUND Mammalian Diaphanous-related formins (Drfs) act as Rho small GTPase effectors during growth factor-induced cytoskeletal remodeling and cell division. While both p140 mDia1 (herein called Drf1) and p134 mDia2 (Drf3) have been shown to bind in vitro to activated RhoA-C, and Drf3 has also been shown to bind to Cdc42, little is known about the(More)
Environmental exposure to the oxidant-producing herbicide paraquat has been implicated as a risk factor in Parkinson's disease. Although intraperitoneal paraquat injections in mice cause a selective loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta, the exact mechanism involved is still poorly understood. Our data show that paraquat induces(More)
— The successful dissemination of emergency messages in vehicular ad hoc networks can make a difference between life and death. To achieve the life-saving goals, emergency message dissemination needs timely and lossless medium access in vehicular ad hoc networks. Although in the literature there are existing medium access control (MAC) protocols that(More)
As Parkinson's disease appears to be a multifactoral disorder, the use of animal models to investigate combined effects of genetic and environmental risk factors are of great importance especially in the context of aging which is the single major risk factor for the disorder. Here, we assessed the combined effects of neonatal iron feeding and environmental(More)
In response to injury, endogenous precursors in the adult brain can proliferate and generate new neurons, which may have the capacity to replace dysfunctional or dead cells. Although injury-induced neurogenesis has been demonstrated in animal models of stroke, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Huntington's disease (HD), studies of Parkinson's disease (PD) have(More)
BACKGROUND Previous studies have demonstrates that, after nerve injury, extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) activation in the spinal cord-initially in neurons, then microglia, and finally astrocytes. In addition, phosphorylation of ERK (p-ERK) contributes to nociceptive responses following inflammation and/or nerve injury. However, the role(More)
Let T be a time scale with 0, T ∈ T. We investigate the existence and multiplicity of positive solutions to the nonlinear second-order three-point boundary-value problem u ∆∇ (t) + a(t)f (u(t)) = 0, t ∈ [0, T ] ⊂ T, u(0) = βu(η), u(T) = αu(η) on time scales T, where 0 < η < T , 0 < α < T η , 0 < β < T −αη T −η are given constants.