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In Guatemala, the Ministry of Health (MoH) began a vector control project with Japanese cooperation in 2000 to reduce the risk of Chagas disease infection. Rhodnius prolixus is one of the principal vectors and is targeted for elimination. The control method consisted of extensive residual insecticide spraying campaigns, followed by community-based(More)
The Southern Cone Initiative (Iniciativa de Salud del Cono Sur, INCOSUR) to control domestic transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi is a substantial achievement based on the enthusiasm of the scientific community, effective strategies, leadership, and cost-effectiveness. INCOSUR triggered the launch of other regional initiatives in Central America and in the(More)
BACKGROUND An increasing use of point of care diagnostic tests that exclude malaria, coupled with a declining malaria burden in many endemic countries, is highlighting the lack of ability of many health systems to manage other causes of febrile disease. A lack of knowledge of distribution of these pathogens, and a lack of screening and point-of-care(More)
Heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs) play pivotal roles in the regulation of Wnt signaling activity in several tissues. At the Drosophila melanogaster neuromuscular junction (NMJ), Wnt/Wingless (Wg) regulates the formation of both pre- and postsynaptic structures; however, the mechanism balancing such bidirectional signaling remains elusive. In this paper,(More)
Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) cause serious health, social and economic burdens in the countries of the World Health Organization Western Pacific Region. Among the NTDs, helminth infections are particularly prominent with regard to the number of infected individuals and health impact. Co-endemicity is common among impoverished and marginalized(More)
Mg(2+) buffering mechanisms in PC12 cells were demonstrated with particular focus on the role of the Na(+)/Mg(2+) transporter by using a newly developed Mg(2+) indicator, KMG-20, and also a Na(+) indicator, Sodium Green. Carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), a protonophore, induced a transient increase in the intracellular Mg(2+)(More)
Odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) are extracellular proteins found in insect chemosensilla, where they participate in the sensing of odors, tastes, and pheromones. Although a large number of OBP genes have been identified in insect genomes, their molecular functions and biological roles have been clarified in limited cases. Two OBP genes, Obp57d and Obp57e,(More)
To examine the existence of a possible threshold for the domestic infestation rate of Triatoma dimidiata, below which transmission becomes unlikely, a census was conducted in 59 Chagas disease endemic communities of El Salvador and Honduras. Entomological and serological tests were conducted targeting 4,083 households and 6,324 children between 6 months and(More)
Novel Mg2+ fluorescent molecular probes (KMG-20-AM and KMG-27-AM; where AM is an acetoxymethyl group) based on a coumarin possessing a charged beta-diketone structure were designed and synthesized. These fluorescent probes produced a red shift from 425 to 445 nm in the absorption spectra after formation of a complex with Mg2+. The fluorescence spectra of(More)
In 2000, the Guatemalan Ministry of Health initiated a Chagas disease program to control Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata by periodic house spraying with pyrethroid insecticides to characterize infestation patterns and analyze the contribution of programmatic practices to these patterns. Spatial infestation patterns at three time points were(More)