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We have developed a tool for performing surgical operations on living cells at nanoscale resolution using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a modified AFM tip. The AFM tips are sharpened to ultrathin needles of 200-300 nm in diameter using focused ion beam etching. Force-distance curves obtained by AFM using the needles indicated that the needles penetrated(More)
Regulatory mechanism in PHB [poly-(hydroxybutyrate)] accumulation by cyanobacteria, especially by a thermophilic isolate, Synechococcus MA19 was reviewed in comparison with a genetically engineered strain. The strain, MA19 accumulates PHB under nitrogen starved and photoautotrophic conditions (MA19-N). Little PHB synthase activity was detected in crude(More)
The transfection efficiency of primary cells is the bottleneck for their use with miniaturized formats for gene validation assays. We have found that when formulations containing various reporter plasmids were microarrayed on glass slides (chips), hMSCs cultivated on the chip incorporated and expressed the microarrayed plasmid DNAs with high efficiency and(More)
Using single-cells time-lapse analysis, we investigated the mechanism of gene expression using nine transfection reagents. Although onset of gene expression occurred after cell division by all reagents, 91.6% periods, which depended on onset and cell division, had statistical significance. Evaluation of those periods is useful for elucidating mechanism of(More)
Microarrays of living cells are an emerging tool in systems such as reverse transfection. These studies are limited to adherent cells partly because of the difficulty of cell immobilization. Using a newly developed reagent, the biocompatible anchor for membrane (BAM), we show herein the rapid and strong attachment of living nonadherent cells and adherent(More)
To construct a homogeneous lipid membrane chromatographic phase, biotinylated unilamellar liposomes of small and large sizes (SUVs and LUVs, respectively) were immobilized in avidin- or streptavidin-derived gel beads in amounts up to 55 micromol phospholipid/ml gel bed at yields above 50%. The immobilized liposomes exhibited excellent stability due to(More)
Unilamellar liposomes of small or large size, SUVs and LUVs, respectively, were stably immobilized in the highly hydrophilic Sepharose 4B or Sephacryl S-1000 gel beads as a membrane stationary phase for immobilized liposome chromatography (ILC). Lipophilic cations of triphenylmethylphosphonium and tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) have been used as probes of(More)
The mechanical properties of cells are unique indicators of their states and functions. Though, it is difficult to recognize the degrees of mechanical properties, due to small size of the cell and broad distribution of the mechanical properties. Here, we developed a simple virtual reality system for presenting the mechanical properties of cells and their(More)
The Clostridium pasteurianum hydrogenase I has been expressed in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942. The Shine-Dalgarno sequence of the structural gene encoding hydrogenase I from C. pasteurianum was changed to that of the cat (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) gene. The hydrogenase gene was cloned downstream of a strong promoter, isolated from(More)
This paper describes the results of the analysis of cortical rigidity in two round cell states: mitotic round cells and detached round cells after trypsinization using atomic force microscopy (AFM). These two states are primary cell events with dynamic morphological alterations in vitro. The trypsinized detached cells were fixed on the substrate of membrane(More)