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We have developed a tool for performing surgical operations on living cells at nanoscale resolution using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a modified AFM tip. The AFM tips are sharpened to ultrathin needles of 200-300 nm in diameter using focused ion beam etching. Force-distance curves obtained by AFM using the needles indicated that the needles penetrated(More)
To scale up human neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) cultures for clinical use, we need to know how long these cells can live ex vivo without losing their ability to proliferate and differentiate; thus, a convenient method is needed to estimate the proliferative activity of human NSPCs grown in neurosphere cultures, as direct cell counting is laborious and(More)
We have studied the expression, localization, and function of the ABCG2 transporter, a universal stem cell marker, at the protein level in human cultured neural stem/progenitor cells (hNSPCs) using immunoblotting, immunofluorescence, and ATPase assays. Human NSPCs were isolated from human fetal brain and propagated in vitro as neurospheres. Both the cells(More)
Insects produce several types of peptides to combat a broad spectrum of invasive pathogenic microbes, including protozoans. However, despite this defense response, infections are often established. Our aim was to design novel peptides that produce high rates of mortality among protozoa of the genus Plasmodium, the malaria parasites. Using existing(More)
We describe a low-invasive gene delivery method that uses an etched atomic force microscopy (AFM) tip or nanoneedle that can be inserted into a cell nucleus without causing cellular damage. The nanoneedle is 200 nm in diameter and 6 mum in length and is operated using an AFM system. The probabilities of insertion of the nanoneedle into human mesenchymal(More)
We have found that a water-soluble alkaline-digested form of eggshell membrane (ASESM) can provide an extracellular matrix (ECM) environment for human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF) in vitro. Avian eggshell membrane (ESM) has a fibrous-meshwork structure and has long been utilized as a Chinese medicine for recovery from burn injuries and wounds in Asian(More)
Oligodendrocytes are the myelinating cells of the central nervous system (CNS), and defects in these cells can result in CNS dysfunction. Although oligodendrocyte precursor cell (OPC) transplantation therapy is an effective cure for several disorders, there is no readily available source of these cells. Recent studies have described the generation of(More)
We investigated the effect of oxidative stress on cell cycle regulation of neural stem/progenitor cells in neurosphere culture. We exposed murine neural stem/progenitor cells to 2 Gy of X-ray irradiation at 48 h after first passage. We found that G2 and G1-arrested cells increased at 3 and 12 h after X-ray irradiation, respectively by using laser scanning(More)
BACKGROUND The investigation of network dynamics is a major issue in systems and synthetic biology. One of the essential steps in a dynamics investigation is the parameter estimation in the model that expresses biological phenomena. Indeed, various techniques for parameter optimization have been devised and implemented in both free and commercial software.(More)