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We have developed a tool for performing surgical operations on living cells at nanoscale resolution using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and a modified AFM tip. The AFM tips are sharpened to ultrathin needles of 200-300 nm in diameter using focused ion beam etching. Force-distance curves obtained by AFM using the needles indicated that the needles penetrated(More)
P450 monooxygenases exhibit great potential for application to bioreactors for the decomposition of various hydrophobic chemicals including pollutant compounds. P450-containing microsomes were immobilized in spinach chloroplasts for use in light-driven bioreactors. We tested three methods (entrapment, adsorption and cross-linking) to immobilize chloroplasts(More)
The principles and recent progress in the research and development of photobiological hydrogen production are reviewed. Cyanobacteria produce hydrogen gas using nitrogenase and/or hydrogenase. Hydrogen production mediated by native hydrogenases in cyanobacteria occurs under in the dark under anaerobic conditions by degradation of intracellular glycogen. In(More)
To construct a homogeneous lipid membrane chromatographic phase, biotinylated unilamellar liposomes of small and large sizes (SUVs and LUVs, respectively) were immobilized in avidin- or streptavidin-derived gel beads in amounts up to 55 micromol phospholipid/ml gel bed at yields above 50%. The immobilized liposomes exhibited excellent stability due to(More)
Regulatory mechanism in PHB [poly-(hydroxybutyrate)] accumulation by cyanobacteria, especially by a thermophilic isolate, Synechococcus MA19 was reviewed in comparison with a genetically engineered strain. The strain, MA19 accumulates PHB under nitrogen starved and photoautotrophic conditions (MA19-N). Little PHB synthase activity was detected in crude(More)
A novel mutant MTP4 was created from the wild-type strain Rhodobacter sphaeroides RV by UV irradiation for the enhancement of hydrogen production. The amount of light absorbed by MTP4 was lower than that by the wild-type strain at any wavelengths ranging from 350 to 1000 nm. This nature enables the illumination of cells in the deeper parts of a reactor. The(More)
The transfection efficiency of primary cells is the bottleneck for their use with miniaturized formats for gene validation assays. We have found that when formulations containing various reporter plasmids were microarrayed on glass slides (chips), hMSCs cultivated on the chip incorporated and expressed the microarrayed plasmid DNAs with high efficiency and(More)
The Clostridium pasteurianum hydrogenase I has been expressed in the cyanobacterium Synechococcus PCC7942. The Shine-Dalgarno sequence of the structural gene encoding hydrogenase I from C. pasteurianum was changed to that of the cat (chloramphenicol acetyltransferase) gene. The hydrogenase gene was cloned downstream of a strong promoter, isolated from(More)
Using single-cells time-lapse analysis, we investigated the mechanism of gene expression using nine transfection reagents. Although onset of gene expression occurred after cell division by all reagents, 91.6% periods, which depended on onset and cell division, had statistical significance. Evaluation of those periods is useful for elucidating mechanism of(More)
Unilamellar liposomes of small or large size, SUVs and LUVs, respectively, were stably immobilized in the highly hydrophilic Sepharose 4B or Sephacryl S-1000 gel beads as a membrane stationary phase for immobilized liposome chromatography (ILC). Lipophilic cations of triphenylmethylphosphonium and tetraphenylphosphonium (TPP+) have been used as probes of(More)