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Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land(More)
Photosynthetic light reactions establish electron flow in the chloroplast's thylakoid membranes, leading to the production of the ATP and NADPH that participate in carbon fixation. Two modes of electron flow exist-linear electron flow (LEF) from water to NADP(+) via photosystem (PS) II and PSI in series and cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI (ref. 2).(More)
The Lhcb gene family in green plants encodes several light-harvesting Chl a/b-binding (LHC) proteins that collect and transfer light energy to the reaction centers of PSII. We comprehensively characterized the Lhcb gene family in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, using the expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. A total of 699 among(More)
State transition in photosynthesis is a short-term balancing mechanism of energy distribution between photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII). When PSII is preferentially excited (state 2), a pool of mobile light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) antenna proteins is thought to migrate from PSII to PSI, but biochemical evidence for a physical association(More)
In oxygen-evolving photosynthesis, the two photosystems-photosystem I and photosystem II-function in parallel, and their excitation levels must be balanced to maintain an optimal photosynthetic rate under natural light conditions. State transitions in photosynthetic organisms balance the absorbed light energy between the two photosystems in a short time by(More)
Plants and green algae maintain efficient photosynthesis under changing light environments by adjusting their light-harvesting capacity. It has been suggested that energy redistribution is brought about by shuttling the light-harvesting antenna complex II (LHCII) between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) (state transitions), but such molecular(More)
State transitions, or the redistribution of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins between photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII), balance the light-harvesting capacity of the two photosystems to optimize the efficiency of photosynthesis. Studies on the migration of LHCII proteins have focused primarily on their reassociation with PSI, but the(More)
Excessive light conditions repressed the levels of mRNAs accumulation of multiple Lhc genes encoding light-harvesting chlorophyll-a/b (LHC) proteins of photosystem (PS)II in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The light intensity required for the repression tended to decrease with lowering temperature or CO(2) concentration. The responses(More)
Plants respond to changes in light quality by regulating the absorption capacity of their photosystems. These short-term adaptations use redox-controlled, reversible phosphorylation of the light-harvesting complexes (LHCIIs) to regulate the relative absorption cross-section of the two photosystems (PSs), commonly referred to as state transitions. It is(More)
Absorption of light in excess of the capacity for photosynthetic electron transport is damaging to photosynthetic organisms. Several mechanisms exist to avoid photodamage, which are collectively referred to as nonphotochemical quenching. This term comprises at least two major processes. State transitions (qT) represent changes in the relative antenna sizes(More)