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Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a unicellular green alga whose lineage diverged from land plants over 1 billion years ago. It is a model system for studying chloroplast-based photosynthesis, as well as the structure, assembly, and function of eukaryotic flagella (cilia), which were inherited from the common ancestor of plants and animals, but lost in land(More)
Photosynthetic light reactions establish electron flow in the chloroplast's thylakoid membranes, leading to the production of the ATP and NADPH that participate in carbon fixation. Two modes of electron flow exist-linear electron flow (LEF) from water to NADP(+) via photosystem (PS) II and PSI in series and cyclic electron flow (CEF) around PSI (ref. 2).(More)
Description: This second volume of The Chlamydomonas Sourcebook provides the background and techniques for using this important organism in plant research. From biogenesis of chloroplasts and mitochondria and photosynthesis to respiration and nitrogen assimilation, this volume introduces scientists to the functions of the organism. The volume then moves on(More)
State transition in photosynthesis is a short-term balancing mechanism of energy distribution between photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII). When PSII is preferentially excited (state 2), a pool of mobile light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) antenna proteins is thought to migrate from PSII to PSI, but biochemical evidence for a physical association(More)
The Lhcb gene family in green plants encodes several light-harvesting Chl a/b-binding (LHC) proteins that collect and transfer light energy to the reaction centers of PSII. We comprehensively characterized the Lhcb gene family in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, using the expressed sequence tag (EST) databases. A total of 699 among(More)
Plants and green algae maintain efficient photosynthesis under changing light environments by adjusting their light-harvesting capacity. It has been suggested that energy redistribution is brought about by shuttling the light-harvesting antenna complex II (LHCII) between photosystem II (PSII) and photosystem I (PSI) (state transitions), but such molecular(More)
In this paper, we describe a protocol to obtain a site-directed mutants in thepsbA gene ofChlamydomonas reinhardtii, which overcomes several drawbacks of previous protocols, and makes it possible to generate a mutant within a month. Since the large size of the gene, and the presence of four large introns has made molecular genetics of thepsbA gene rather(More)
State transitions, or the redistribution of light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) proteins between photosystem I (PSI) and photosystem II (PSII), balance the light-harvesting capacity of the two photosystems to optimize the efficiency of photosynthesis. Studies on the migration of LHCII proteins have focused primarily on their reassociation with PSI, but the(More)
Photosystem II (PSII) is a multiprotein complex that splits water and initiates electron transfer in photosynthesis. The central part of PSII, the PSII core, is surrounded by light-harvesting complex II proteins (LHCIIs). In higher plants, two or three LHCII trimers are seen on each side of the PSII core whereas only one is seen in the corresponding(More)
In oxygen-evolving photosynthesis, the two photosystems-photosystem I and photosystem II-function in parallel, and their excitation levels must be balanced to maintain an optimal photosynthetic rate under natural light conditions. State transitions in photosynthetic organisms balance the absorbed light energy between the two photosystems in a short time by(More)