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Increasing evidence supports a crucial role for glial metabolism in maintaining proper synaptic function and in the etiology of neurological disease. However, the study of glial metabolism in humans has been hampered by the lack of noninvasive methods. To specifically measure the contribution of astroglia to brain energy metabolism in humans, we used a(More)
CD44 is a cell surface glycoprotein involved in cell adhesion during neurite outgrowth, leukocyte homing, and tumor metastasis. In the current study, we examined the regulation of this molecule 4 days after neural trauma in different forms of central and peripheral injury. Transection of the hypoglossal, vagus, or sciatic nerve led to the appearance of(More)
The aims of this study were twofold: (i) to determine quantitatively the contribution of glutamate/glutamine cycling to total astrocyte/neuron substrate trafficking for the replenishment of neurotransmitter glutamate; and (ii) to determine the relative contributions of anaplerotic flux and glutamate/glutamine cycling to total glutamine synthesis. In this(More)
CONTEXT Increasing evidence indicates that major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with altered function of the major excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters glutamate and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), respectively. A recently developed magnetic resonance spectroscopy method allows for reliable measurement of glutamate/glutamine (Glx) and GABA(More)
A novel selective multiple quantum filtering-based chemical shift imaging method was developed for acquiring GABA images in the human brain at 3 T. This method allows a concomitant acquisition of an interleaved total creatine image with the same spatial resolution. Using T(1)-based image segmentation and a nonlinear least square regression analysis of(More)
In this article we review recent studies, primarily from our laboratory, using 13C NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) to non-invasively measure the rate of the glutamate-glutamine neurotransmitter cycle in the cortex of rats and humans. In the glutamate-glutamine cycle, glutamate released from nerve terminals is taken up by surrounding glial cells and(More)
Increasing evidence supports a crucial role for glial metabolism in maintaining proper synaptic function and in the etiology of neurological disease. However, the study of glial metabolism in humans has been hampered by the lack of noninvasive methods. To specifically measure the contribution of astroglia to brain energy metabolism in humans, we used a(More)
Previously, magnetic resonance spectroscopy studies of alterations in cerebral metabolite concentration during functional activation have been focused on phosphocreatine using 31P MRS and lactate using 1H MRS with controversial results. Recently, significant improvements on the spectral resolution and sensitivity of in vivo spectroscopy have been made at(More)
Under appropriate culture conditions, bone marrow (BM)-derived mesenchymal stem cells are capable of differentiating into diverse cell types unrelated to their phenotypical embryonic origin, including neural cells. Here, we report the successful generation of neural stem cell (NSC)-like cells from BM-derived human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Initially,(More)