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The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR, NR1I3) is a central regulator of xenobiotic metabolism. CAR activation induces hepatic expression of detoxification enzymes and transporters and increases liver size. Here we show that CAR-mediated hepatomegaly is a transient, adaptive response to acute xenobiotic stress. In contrast, chronic CAR activation results(More)
Plant protoplasts, a proven physiological and versatile cell system, are widely used in high-throughput analysis and functional characterization of genes. Green protoplasts have been successfully used in investigations of plant signal transduction pathways related to hormones, metabolites and environmental challenges. In rice, protoplasts are commonly(More)
Liver mass depends on one or more unidentified humoral signals that drive regeneration when liver functional capacity is diminished. Bile acids are important liver products, and their levels are tightly regulated. Here, we identify a role for nuclear receptor-dependent bile acid signaling in normal liver regeneration. Elevated bile acid levels accelerate(More)
Plant innate immunity relies on successful detection of microbe-associated molecular patterns (MAMPs) of invading microbes via pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) at the plant cell surface. Here, we report two homologous rice (Oryza sativa) lysin motif-containing proteins, LYP4 and LYP6, as dual functional PRRs sensing bacterial peptidoglycan (PGN) and(More)
OBJECTIVE Diagnoses using imaging-based measures alone offer the hope of improving the accuracy of clinical diagnosis, thereby reducing the costs associated with incorrect treatments. Previous attempts to use brain imaging for diagnosis, however, have had only limited success in diagnosing patients who are independent of the samples used to derive the(More)
Development of formulations for protein drugs requiring high dosing (in the order of mg/kg) may become challenging for solubility limited proteins and for the subcutaneous (SC) route with <1.5 mL allowable administration volume that requires >100 mg/mL protein concentrations. Development of high protein concentration formulations also results in several(More)
PURPOSE We evaluated whether patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) -positive primary breast tumors had metastatic tumors that were HER2 positive (concordant) or HER2 negative (discordant). We then evaluated whether treatment with trastuzumab or chemotherapy before biopsy of the metastasis had any effect on the rate of HER2(More)
CONTEXT Limbic portions of cortical-subcortical circuits are likely involved in the pathogenesis of Tourette syndrome (TS). They are anatomically, developmentally, neurochemically, and functionally related to the basal ganglia, and the basal ganglia are thought to produce the symptoms of tics, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and(More)
The brain disturbances that place a person at risk for developing depression are unknown. We imaged the brains of 131 individuals, ages 6 to 54 years, who were biological descendants (children or grandchildren) of individuals identified as having either moderate to severe, recurrent, and functionally debilitating depression or as having no lifetime history(More)
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of reversible protein self-association on the viscosity of concentrated monoclonal antibody solutions. The viscosities of the monoclonal antibody solutions were measured by either a capillary viscometer or a cone-plate rheometer at different protein concentrations, pH, and ionic strength. Soluble aggregates(More)