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This study describes comprehensive polling of transcription start and termination sites and analysis of previously unidentified full-length complementary DNAs derived from the mouse genome. We identify the 5' and 3' boundaries of 181,047 transcripts with extensive variation in transcripts arising from alternative promoter usage, splicing, and(More)
Although the immediate receptors (immunophilins) of the immunosuppressants cyclosporin A (CsA) and FK506 are distinct, their similar mechanisms of inhibition of cell signaling suggest that their associated immunophilin complexes interact with a common target. We report here that the complexes cyclophilin-CsA and FKBP-FK506 (but not cyclophilin, FKBP,(More)
Newborn mice homozygous for a targeted disruption of insulin-like growth factor gene (Igf-1) exhibit a growth deficiency similar in severity to that previously observed in viable Igf-2 null mutants (60% of normal birthweight). Depending on genetic background, some of the Igf-1(-/-) dwarfs die shortly after birth, while others survive and reach adulthood. In(More)
A developmental analysis of growth kinetics in mouse embryos carrying null mutations of the genes encoding insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), IGF-II, and the type 1 IGF receptor (IGF1R), alone or in combination, defined the onset of mutational effects leading to growth deficiency and indicated that between embryonic days 11.0 and 12.5, IGF1R serves only(More)
Neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult rodents is regulated by NMDA receptors, adrenal steroids, environmental stimuli, and seizures. To determine whether ischemia affects neurogenesis, newly divided cells in the dentate gyrus were examined after transient global ischemia in adult gerbils. 5-Bromo-2'-deoxyuridine-5'-monophosphate (BrdU)(More)
Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) into mouse oocytes involves a very low survival rate. This study was designed to determine why ICSI frequently fails in mice. Metaphase II oocytes were obtained from superovulated 4-6 week old F1 hybrid mice. Spermatozoa were retrieved from the epididymis of 12-14 week old F1 hybrid mice. The spiked microinjection(More)
We report a high-quality draft sequence of the genome of the horse (Equus caballus). The genome is relatively repetitive but has little segmental duplication. Chromosomes appear to have undergone few historical rearrangements: 53% of equine chromosomes show conserved synteny to a single human chromosome. Equine chromosome 11 is shown to have an evolutionary(More)
GLT-1, GLAST, and EAAC1 are high-affinity, Na(+)-dependent glutamate transporters identified in rat forebrain. The expression of these transporter subtypes was characterized in three preparations: undifferentiated rat cortical astrocyte cultures, astrocytes cocultured with cortical neurons, and astrocyte cultures differentiated with dibutyryl cyclic AMP(More)
Previously reported better fertilization rate after intracytoplasmic single sperm injection (ICSI) than after subzonal insemination of several spermatozoa was confirmed in a controlled comparison of the two procedures in 11 patients. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection was carried out in 150 consecutive treatment cycles of 150 infertile couples, who had failed(More)
We have shown previously that partial inhibition of the cardiac myocyte Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase activates signal pathways that regulate myocyte growth and growth-related genes and that increases in intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) are two essential second messengers within these pathways. The aim of this work was(More)