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High-MgO (s 8.5 wt%), aphyric lavas erupted at various locations in the North Atlantic igneous province are utilized to characterize the nature of mantle melting during the formation of this province. Based on the observation that the Ni concentration in residual mantle olivine mostly falls in the range of 2000^3500 ppm, these high-MgO samples are corrected(More)
[1] We present a new quantitative framework to understand the process of mantle melting based on the velocity structure of igneous crust. Our approach focuses on the lower crustal section, which is expected to be least affected by porosity and seawater alteration, especially for thick igneous crust. Our methodology is thus best for constraining the origin(More)
We present a melt percolation model incorporating finite solid diffusion to provide a quantitative constraint on how melt migrates through the oceanic lower crust at fast-spreading ridge axes. The lower crustal, layered gabbro in the Oman ophiolite, which was formed at a fast-spreading ridge, shows correlated variations in primary mineral compositions with(More)
Seismic reflection and refraction data acquired on four transects spanning the Southeast Greenland rifted margin and Greenland^Iceland Ridge (GIR) provide new constraints on mantle thermal structure and melting processes during continental breakup in the North Atlantic. Maximum igneous crustal thickness varies along the margin from s 30 km in the(More)
Plate tectonics is one of the major factors affecting the potential habitability of a terrestrial planet. The physics of plate tectonics is, however, still far from being complete, leading to considerable uncertainty when discussing planetary habitability. Here, I summarize recent developments on the evolution of plate tectonics on Earth, which suggest a(More)
The notion of self-regulating mantle convection, in which heat loss from the surface is constantly adjusted to follow internal radiogenic heat production, has been popular for the past six decades since Urey first advocated the idea. Thanks to its intuitive appeal, this notion has pervaded the solid earth sciences in various forms, but approach to a(More)
[1] Seismic reflection and refraction data from the SE Greenland margin provide a detailed view of a volcanic rifted margin from Archean continental crust to near-to-average oceanic crust over a spatial scale of 400 km. The SIGMA III transect, located $600 km south of the Greenland-Iceland Ridge and the presumed track of the Iceland hot spot, shows that the(More)
I agree that the departments may make copies or post it on the departmental websites so that others may better understand the undergraduate research of the departments. I further agree that extensive copying of this thesis is allowable only for scholarly purposes. It is understood, however, that any copying or publication of this thesis for commercial(More)
The bulk Earth composition contains probably less than 0.3% of water, but this trace amount of water can affect the long-term evolution of the Earth in a number of different ways. The foremost issue is the occurrence of plate tectonics, which governs almost all aspects of the Earth system, and the presence of water could either promote or hinder the(More)
Silver and Behn (Reports, 4 January 2008, p. 85) proposed that intermittent plate tectonics may resolve a long-standing paradox in Earth's thermal evolution. However, their analysis misses one important term, which subsequently brings their main conclusion into question. In addition, the Phanerozoic eustasy record indicates that the claimed effect of(More)
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