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In the mammalian central nervous system glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter and plays a crucial role in plasticity and toxicity of certain neural cells. We found that glutamate stimulated activation of p38 and stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK, also known as c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)), two subgroup members of the mitogen-activated(More)
Single photon emission computed tomography was used to evaluate regional cerebral blood flow changes during gait on a treadmill in 10 patients with Parkinson's disease and 10 age-matched controls. The subjects were injected with [99mTc]hexamethyl-propyleneamine oxime twice: while walking on the treadmill, which moved at a steady speed, and while lying on a(More)
We examined the effects of nicotinic receptor agonists against beta amyloid (Abeta) cytotoxicity to rat cortical neurons. Administration of nicotine protected against Abeta-induced neuronal death. This neuroprotection was blocked by dihydro-beta-erythroidine, an alpha4beta2 nicotinic receptor antagonist. Furthermore, incubation with cytisine, a selective(More)
Septins are evolutionarily conserved cytoskeletal GTPases that can form heteropolymer complexes involved in cytokinesis and other cellular processes. We detected expression of the human septin genes Nedd5, H5, Diff6, and hCDC100 in postmortem brain tissues using the reverse transcription-coupled polymerase chain reaction and their products by immunoblot(More)
One of the central issues in developmental neurobiology is how the forebrain is organized ontogenetically. The traditional view is that the anterior neuroectoderm first develops into mesencephalic and prosencephalic vesicles; the latter vesicle subsequently develops into the diencephalon and secondary prosencephalon, of which dorsal parts protrude to(More)
The immunohistochemical localization of amyloid beta/A4 protein in the senescence-accelerated mouse brain was studied using six different antisera against human amyloid precursor protein peptides. beta/A4 proteinlike immunoreactivity was observed in the form of granular structures (beta-LIGS) in various regions, including the medial septum, cerebral cortex,(More)
Bereitschaftspotential (BP) was recorded directly from the right supplementary motor area proper (SMA-proper) and its rostral part by chronically implanted subdural electrodes in three patients with intractable focal motor seizure. Cortical electrical stimulation of the SMA-proper revealed the somatotopy as previously reported, and the supplementary(More)
To investigate the neural mechanisms involved in shifting attention we used positron emission tomography to examine regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) during a task that demands shifting attention between color and shape. Significant activation was observed in the right dorsal prefrontal cortex and parieto-occipital cortex at all frequencies of attention(More)
We report on 2 patients with multifocal motor neuropathy with focal conduction block involving motor but not sensory fibers at the site of nerve swelling. A nerve biopsy specimen from adjacent to the enlargement in 1 patient showed a perivascular area containing scattered demyelinated axons surrounded by small onion bulbs. The observed pathological findings(More)
Lewy bodies commonly observed in brains with Parkinson's disease (PD) histochemically contain both protein and lipid as chemical components. Ultrastructurally, they are composed of filamentous, vesicular and granular structures. We investigated PD brains with light and electron microscopic immunohistochemistry using antibodies against two marker proteins(More)