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PINK1 (PTEN induced putative kinase 1), a familial Parkinson's disease (PD)-related gene, is expressed in astrocytes, but little is known about its role in this cell type. Here, we found that astrocytes cultured from PINK1-knockout (KO) mice exhibit defective proliferative responses to epidermal growth factor (EGF) and fetal bovine serum. In PINK1-KO(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative movement disorder caused by the death of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Importantly, altered astrocyte and microglial functions could contribute to neuronal death in PD. In this study, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which DJ-1 (PARK7), an early onset autosomal-recessive PD gene,(More)
BACKGROUND Despite the usefulness of CA 19-9 in the diagnosis and prognosis of pancreatic cancer, cholestasis can falsely elevate CA 19-9 levels, which contributes to limited clinical utility in patients with biliary obstruction. This study was designed to evaluate the usefulness of adjusted preoperative CA 19-9 levels in predicting a prognosis of(More)
AIMS The aim of the present study was to identify specific electrocardiogram (ECG) features that predict the development of multiple episodes of ventricular fibrillation (VF) in patients with an early repolarization (ER) pattern and to compare the mode of VF initiation with that observed in typical cases of Brugada syndrome (BrS). METHODS AND RESULTS The(More)
Glutamate produces both fast excitation through activation of ionotropic receptors and slower actions through metabotropic receptors (mGluRs). To date, ionotropic but not metabotropic neurotransmission has been shown to undergo long-term synaptic potentiation and depression. Burst stimulation of parallel fibers releases glutamate, which activates(More)
Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative motor disease caused by degeneration of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra. Because brain inflammation has been considered a risk factor for PD, we analyzed whether PTEN induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1), an autosomal recessive familial PD gene, regulates brain inflammation(More)
It has been recently shown that the expression of various types of neurotransmitter receptors is not restricted to neurons but also observed in a majority of glial cells. However, their function in glial cells is not known well in both physiological and pathological conditions. Here, we investigated the role of glutamate receptor on c-fos gene expression in(More)
  Cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) are the sole output of the cerebellar cortex and function as key to a variety of learning-related behaviours by integrating multimodal afferent inputs. Intrinsic membrane excitability of neurons determines the input-output relationship, and therefore governs the functions of neural circuits. Cerebellar vermis consists of(More)
In wireless sensor networks, various schemes have been proposed to efficiently store and process sensed data. Among them, the data-centric storage (DCS) scheme is one of the most well-known. The DCS scheme distributes data regions and stores the data in the sensor that is responsible for the region. The DCS based scheme was proposed to reduce the(More)
In this study, we observed quantal changes in single synapse excitatory postsynaptic currents to characterize N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated silent synapses between primary afferents and spinal substantia gelatinosa neurons. The failure rate of primary afferent quantal excitatory postsynaptic currents was lower at depolarized holding potentials than(More)