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Diatoms are single-celled algae that make silica shells or frustules with intricate nanoscale features imbedded within periodic two-dimensional pore arrays. A two-stage photobioreactor cultivation process was used to metabolically insert titanium into the patterned biosilica of the diatom Pinnularia sp. In Stage I, diatom cells were grown up on dissolved(More)
Therapeutic cancer vaccination is an attractive strategy because it induces T cells of the immune system to recognize and kill tumour cells in cancer patients. However, it remains difficult to generate large numbers of T cells that can recognize the antigens on cancer cells using conventional vaccine carrier systems. Here we show that α-Al(2)O(3)(More)
In this paper, we present a simple procedure to increase the sensitivity of a glucose biosensor. The feasibility of an amperometric glucose biosensor based on immobilization of glucose oxidase (GOx) in silver (Ag) sol was investigated for the first time. GOx was simply mixed with Ag nanoparticles and cross-linked with a polyvinyl butyral (PVB) medium by(More)
We report here on applying electric fields and dielectric media to achieve controlled alignment of single-crystal nickel silicide nanowires between two electrodes. Depending on the concentration of nanowire suspension and the distribution of electrical field, various configurations of nanowire interconnects, such as single, chained, and branched nanowires(More)
Nano-branched TiO2 arrays were fabricated on fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO) glass by a facile two-step chemical synthesis process. Self-powered UV photodetectors based on photoelectrochemical cells (PECs) were assembled using these TiO2 nano-branched arrays as photoanodes. These visible-blind self-powered UV photodetectors exhibit high sensitivity and(More)
The development of highly efficient anode materials is critical for enhancing the current output of microbial electrochemical cells. In this study, Au and Pd nanoparticle decorated graphite anodes were developed and evaluated in a newly designed multi-anode microbial electrolysis cell (MEC). The anodes decorated with Au nanoparticles produced current(More)
The marine diatom Nitzschia frustulum is a single-celled photosynthetic organism that uses soluble silicon as the substrate to fabricate intricately patterned silica shells called frustules consisting of 200 nm diameter pores in a rectangular array. Controlled photobioreactor cultivation of the N. frustulum cell suspension to silicon starvation induced(More)
Individual shells of the diatom Coscinodiscus were self-assembled into a rectangular array on a glass surface that possessed a polyelectrolyte multilayer patterned through inkjet printing. This patterned thin film possessed hierarchical order with nanostructure provided by the diatom biosilica. The process used two polyelectrolytes with opposite electric(More)
Diatoms are single-celled algae that make microscale silica shells or "frustules" with intricate nanoscale features such as two-dimensional pore arrays. In this study, the metabolic insertion of low levels of germanium into the frustule biosilica of the pennate diatom Nitzschia frustulum by a two-stage cultivation process induced the formation of frustules(More)
We present a floating-potential dielectrophoresis method used for the first time to achieve controlled alignment of an individual semiconducting or metallic single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) between two electrical contacts with high repeatability. This result is significantly different from previous reports, in which bundles of SWCNTs were aligned(More)