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The pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease is deposition of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) in the brain. Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin II receptor blocker with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma)-stimulating activity. Activation of PPAR-gamma is expected to prevent inflammation and Abeta accumulation in the brain. We(More)
Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma. Here, we investigated the preventive effect of telmisartan on cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. In ddY mice, intracerebroventricular injection of Abeta 1-40 significantly attenuated their cognitive function(More)
The RAS (renin-angiotensin system) plays a role not only in the cardiovascular system, including blood pressure regulation, but also in the central nervous system. AngII (angiotensin II) binds two major receptors: the AT(1) receptor (AngII type 1 receptor) and AT(2) receptor (AngII type 2 receptor). It has been recognized that AT(2) receptor activation not(More)
The molecular mechanisms of the contribution of angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockers to neuronal protection are still unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of angiotensin II type-2 (AT2) receptor stimulation on neurons and cognitive function involving a new neuroprotective factor, methyl methanesulfonate sensitive 2 (MMS2). Angiotensin II treatment(More)
Interaction between aldosterone (Aldo) and angiotensin II (Ang II) in the cardiovascular system has been highlighted; however, its detailed signaling mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we examined the cross-talk of growth-promoting signaling between Aldo and Ang II in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Treatment with a lower dose of Aldo (10(-12)(More)
We reported previously that an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, telmisartan, improved cognitive decline with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation; however, the detailed mechanisms are unclear. Enhanced blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability with alteration of tight junctions is suggested to be related to diabetes mellitus.(More)
Angiotensin II (Ang II) type 2 (AT2) receptors are abundantly expressed not only in the fetal brain where they probably contribute to brain development, but also in pathological conditions to protect the brain against stroke; however, the detailed mechanisms are unclear. Here, we demonstrated that AT2 receptor signaling induced neural differentiation via an(More)
We previously reported that angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor signaling prevents neural damage and cognitive impairment after focal cerebral ischemia. We investigated the possible roles of the AT(2) receptor in the sex difference, focusing on cognitive function and ischemic brain damage using AT(2) receptor-deficient mice (Agtr2(-)). In Agtr2(-),(More)
In order to identify whether bisphenol A (BPA) acts as an adipogenic agent, following the hormonal induction of differentiation into adipocytes, 3T3-L1 cells were treated for six days with BPA alone. Treatment with BPA increased the triacylglycerol (TG) content of the cultures, increased the percentage of Oil Red O-staining cells in the cultures, and(More)
We examined the possibility that direct stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor by a newly generated direct AT(2) receptor agonist, Compound 21 (C21), enhances cognitive function. Treatment with C21 intraperitoneal injection for 2 weeks significantly enhanced cognitive function evaluated by the Morris water maze test in C57BL6 mice, but(More)