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Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) and partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma. Here, we investigated the preventive effect of telmisartan on cognitive decline in Alzheimer disease. In ddY mice, intracerebroventricular injection of Abeta 1-40 significantly attenuated their cognitive function(More)
The molecular mechanisms of the contribution of angiotensin II type-1 receptor blockers to neuronal protection are still unclear. Here, we investigated the effect of angiotensin II type-2 (AT2) receptor stimulation on neurons and cognitive function involving a new neuroprotective factor, methyl methanesulfonate sensitive 2 (MMS2). Angiotensin II treatment(More)
The RAS (renin-angiotensin system) plays a role not only in the cardiovascular system, including blood pressure regulation, but also in the central nervous system. AngII (angiotensin II) binds two major receptors: the AT(1) receptor (AngII type 1 receptor) and AT(2) receptor (AngII type 2 receptor). It has been recognized that AT(2) receptor activation not(More)
The pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease is deposition of amyloid-beta protein (Abeta) in the brain. Telmisartan is a unique angiotensin II receptor blocker with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma)-stimulating activity. Activation of PPAR-gamma is expected to prevent inflammation and Abeta accumulation in the brain. We(More)
We reported previously that an angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, telmisartan, improved cognitive decline with peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ activation; however, the detailed mechanisms are unclear. Enhanced blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability with alteration of tight junctions is suggested to be related to diabetes mellitus.(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We investigated the effect of temporary treatment with a nonhypotensive dose of valsartan on ischemic brain damage in C57BL/6 mice. METHODS We separated the mice into 3 groups of valsartan treatment before middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion: (1) for 4 weeks: Val (2W, 2W); (2) for 2 weeks followed by its cessation for 2 weeks:(More)
Interaction between aldosterone (Aldo) and angiotensin II (Ang II) in the cardiovascular system has been highlighted; however, its detailed signaling mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we examined the cross-talk of growth-promoting signaling between Aldo and Ang II in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Treatment with a lower dose of Aldo (10(-12)(More)
In order to identify whether bisphenol A (BPA) acts as an adipogenic agent, following the hormonal induction of differentiation into adipocytes, 3T3-L1 cells were treated for six days with BPA alone. Treatment with BPA increased the triacylglycerol (TG) content of the cultures, increased the percentage of Oil Red O-staining cells in the cultures, and(More)
BACKGROUND Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability; however, meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials of blood pressure-lowering drugs in acute stroke has shown no definite evidence of a beneficial effect on functional outcome. Accumulating evidence suggests that angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockade with angiotensin II type 2 (AT2)(More)
We examined the possibility that direct stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor by a newly generated direct AT(2) receptor agonist, Compound 21 (C21), enhances cognitive function. Treatment with C21 intraperitoneal injection for 2 weeks significantly enhanced cognitive function evaluated by the Morris water maze test in C57BL6 mice, but(More)