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In order to identify whether bisphenol A (BPA) acts as an adipogenic agent, following the hormonal induction of differentiation into adipocytes, 3T3-L1 cells were treated for six days with BPA alone. Treatment with BPA increased the triacylglycerol (TG) content of the cultures, increased the percentage of Oil Red O-staining cells in the cultures, and(More)
We examined the possibility that direct stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor by a newly generated direct AT(2) receptor agonist, Compound 21 (C21), enhances cognitive function. Treatment with C21 intraperitoneal injection for 2 weeks significantly enhanced cognitive function evaluated by the Morris water maze test in C57BL6 mice, but(More)
We previously reported that angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor signaling prevents neural damage and cognitive impairment after focal cerebral ischemia. We investigated the possible roles of the AT(2) receptor in the sex difference, focusing on cognitive function and ischemic brain damage using AT(2) receptor-deficient mice (Agtr2(-)). In Agtr2(-),(More)
The metabolic syndrome is closely related to dietary habits and seems to be associated with impairment of cognitive function in humans. Angiotensin receptor blockers are widely used with the expectation of preventing cardiovascular events and stroke and potential amelioration of the metabolic syndrome. We examined the diet-induced changes of cognitive(More)
The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) has been highlighted as having a pathological role in stroke, dementia, and neurodegenerative disease. Particularly, in dementia, epidemiological studies indicate a preventive effect of RAS blockade on cognitive impairment in Alzheimer disease (AD). Moreover, basic experiments suggest a role of brain angiotensin II(More)
Interaction between aldosterone (Aldo) and angiotensin II (Ang II) in the cardiovascular system has been highlighted; however, its detailed signaling mechanism is poorly understood. Here, we examined the cross-talk of growth-promoting signaling between Aldo and Ang II in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Treatment with a lower dose of Aldo (10(-12)(More)
OBJECTIVES The role of angiotensin II type 2 (AT(2)) receptor stimulation in the pathogenesis of insulin resistance is still unclear. Therefore we examined the possibility that direct AT(2) receptor stimulation by compound 21 (C21) might contribute to possible insulin-sensitizing/anti-diabetic effects in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) with PPARγ activation, mainly(More)
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is known to be associated with increased risk of cognitive impairment including Alzheimer disease. Recent studies have suggested an interaction between angiotensin II and N-methyl-d-aspartic acid (NMDA) glutamate receptors. We previously reported that stimulation of the angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor exerts brain(More)
We demonstrated that angiotensin II type 2 (AT2) receptor-interacting protein (ATIP) 1 ameliorates inflammation-mediated vascular remodeling independent of the AT2 receptor, leading us to explore the possibility of whether ATIP1 could exert anti-inflammatory effects and play a role in other pathophysiological conditions. We examined the possible(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE We investigated the effect of temporary treatment with a nonhypotensive dose of valsartan on ischemic brain damage in C57BL/6 mice. METHODS We separated the mice into 3 groups of valsartan treatment before middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion: (1) for 4 weeks: Val (2W, 2W); (2) for 2 weeks followed by its cessation for 2 weeks:(More)