Learn More
A major class of disease resistance (R) genes which encode nucleotide binding and leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins have been used in traditional breeding programs for crop protection. However, it has been difficult to functionally transfer NB-LRR-type R genes in taxonomically distinct families. Here we demonstrate that a pair of Arabidopsis(More)
Although RNA interference (RNAi) is a popular technique, no method for simultaneous silencing of multiple targets by small-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing RNAi vectors has yet been established. Although gene silencing can be achieved by synthetic small-interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes, the approach is transient and largely dependent on the transfection(More)
Mutations in the B-Raf gene have been reported in a number of human cancers, including colorectal carcinoma. More than 80% of the B-Raf mutations were V599E. Although other mutations have been reported, their functional consequences were unclear. Here, we examined the effect of colon tumor-associated B-Raf mutations within the kinase activation segment,(More)
Mutations in the PIK3CA gene, which encodes the p110alpha catalytic subunit of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), have been reported in human cancers, including colorectal cancer. Most of the mutations cluster at hotspots within the helical and kinase domains. Whereas H1047R, one of the hotspot mutants, is reported to have elevated lipid kinase activity,(More)
Recently, mutations in the B-Raf gene have been identified in a variety of human cancers, such as melanoma and colorectal carcinoma, and more than 80% of the B-Raf mutations have been V599E. Although other mutations have been reported, their functional consequences are poorly understood. In our earlier study, we demonstrated that colon tumor-associated(More)
The load capacity of a manipulator depends on a load capacity of a joint or load capacities of some joints of the manipulator. Even if a manipulator could not handle an object because of its load capacity, some of its joints still have enough capabilities for the handling of the object. In this paper, we proposed a method to handle an object using available(More)
The central course of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) fibers from C1, C2 and C3, and particularly, their brainstem terminations were studied in rats using anterograde transport of wheat germ agglutinin conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (WGA-HRP). WGA-HRP was injected into the exposed DRG, and after 3 days the animals were sacrificed and sections of spinal cord(More)
Callus formation and de novo organogenesis often occur in the wounded tissues of plants. Although this regenerative capacity of plant cells has been utilized for many years, molecular basis for the wound-induced acquisition of regeneration competency is yet to be elucidated. Here we find that wounding treatment is essential for shoot regeneration from roots(More)