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A major class of disease resistance (R) genes which encode nucleotide binding and leucine rich repeat (NB-LRR) proteins have been used in traditional breeding programs for crop protection. However, it has been difficult to functionally transfer NB-LRR-type R genes in taxonomically distinct families. Here we demonstrate that a pair of Arabidopsis(More)
Although RNA interference (RNAi) is a popular technique, no method for simultaneous silencing of multiple targets by small-hairpin RNA (shRNA)-expressing RNAi vectors has yet been established. Although gene silencing can be achieved by synthetic small-interfering RNA (siRNA) duplexes, the approach is transient and largely dependent on the transfection(More)
The load capacity of a manipulator depends on a load capacity of a joint or load capacities of some joints of the manipulator. Even if a manipulator could not handle an object because of its load capacity, some of its joints still have enough capabilities for the handling of the object. In this paper, we proposed a method to handle an object using available(More)
Callus formation and de novo organogenesis often occur in the wounded tissues of plants. Although this regenerative capacity of plant cells has been utilized for many years, molecular basis for the wound-induced acquisition of regeneration competency is yet to be elucidated. Here we find that wounding treatment is essential for shoot regeneration from roots(More)
NB-LRR-type disease resistance (R) genes have been used in traditional breeding programs for crop protection. However, functional transfer of NB-LRR-type R genes to plants in taxonomically distinct families to establish pathogen resistance has not been successful. Here we demonstrate that a pair of Arabidopsis (Brassicaceae) NB-LRR-type R genes, RPS4 and(More)