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Functional analysis of a genome requires accurate gene structure information and a complete gene inventory. A dual experimental strategy was used to verify and correct the initial genome sequence annotation of the reference plant Arabidopsis. Sequencing full-length cDNAs and hybridizations using RNA populations from various tissues to a set of high-density(More)
MicroRNA (miR)390 cleaves the non-coding TAS3 precursor RNA for the production of tasiRNA-ARF, a group of an endogenous trans-acting small-interfering RNAs which cleave the transcripts of auxin response factor (ARF) 3/4. miR390-cleaved TAS3 RNA is polymerized and diced into tasiRNA-ARF by RNA-dependent RNA polymerase6 (RDR6) and Dicer-like4 (DCL4),(More)
Rice has the unique ability to express alpha-amylase under anoxic conditions, a feature that is critical for successful anaerobic germination and growth. Previously, anaerobic conditions were shown to up-regulate the expression of Amy3 subfamily genes (Amy3B/C, 3D, and 3E) in rice embryos. These genes are known to be feedback regulated by the hydrolytic(More)
The Arabidopsis thaliana root system, which comprises primary, lateral, and adventitious roots, responds differentially to environmental and hormonal signals. For example, exposure to high concentrations of the plant hormone auxin promotes lateral root (LR) initiation and emergence; however, high levels of auxin inhibit primary root (PR) growth. Here, we(More)
Controlling the production of diverse cell/tissue types is essential for the development of multicellular organisms such as animals and plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana root, which contains distinct cells/tissues along longitudinal and radial axes, has served as an elegant model to investigate how genetic programs and environmental signals interact to(More)
Ca2+ as in other cellular signaling pathways plays a key signal-mediating function in plant immune responses. However, a negative immune activity of some Ca2+-binding calmodulins implicates a rather confusing function of Ca2+ despite its importance in plant immunity. We therefore studied here an effect of Ca2+ on Arabidopsis disease resistance to an adapted(More)
This paper presents a termination criterion for active contour that does not involve alteration of the energy functional. The criterion is based on the area difference of the contour during evolution. In this criterion, the evolution of the contour terminates when the area difference fluctuates around a constant. The termination criterion is tested using(More)
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