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Neurobiology of retinal dopamine is reviewed and discussed in relation to degenerative states of the tissue. The Introduction deals with the basic physiological actions of dopamine on the different neurons in vertebrate retinae with an emphasis upon mammals. The intimate relationship between the dopamine and melatonin systems is also covered. Recent(More)
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is caused by the noxious effects of tobacco smoke, which leads to airway epithelial cell injury and the induction of phenotypic changes such as squamous metaplasia and cellular senescence, which are assumed to be part of the adaptive response to toxic components such as reactive oxygen species (ROS). Recently,(More)
Autophagy, a process that helps maintain homeostatic balance between the synthesis, degradation, and recycling of organelles and proteins to meet metabolic demands, plays an important regulatory role in cellular senescence and differentiation. Here we examine the regulatory role of autophagy in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) pathogenesis. We test the(More)
Cigarette smoke induces damage to proteins and organelles by oxidative stress, resulting in accelerated epithelial cell senescence in the lung, which is implicated in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) pathogenesis. Although the detailed molecular mechanisms are not fully understood, cellular energy status is one of the most crucial determinants(More)
Spinal epidural hematoma is a relatively rare condition in children. We report the case of a 6-year-old girl who presented to a regional hospital with the complaints of severe thoracic back pain, neck stiffness, and gait disturbance of sudden onset. Clinical examination revealed no obvious cause for the symptoms. Spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)(More)
BACKGROUND Marked accumulation of alveolar macrophages (AM) conferred by apoptosis resistance has been implicated in pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Apoptosis inhibitor of macrophage (AIM), has been shown to be produced by mature tissue macrophages and AIM demonstrates anti-apoptotic property against multiple apoptosis-inducing(More)
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the profiles of the bone strength of rats treated from infancy with various drugs. Young female Sprague-Dawley rats were classified into five groups according to the composition of their diets. They underwent resection of their femurs for a three-point flexion test and an impaction test at 6, 8, 12, and 16(More)
Cigarette smoke (CS)-induced cellular senescence has been implicated in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and SIRT6, a histone deacetylase, antagonizes this senescence, presumably through the attenuation of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-Akt signaling. Autophagy controls cellular senescence by eliminating damaged cellular(More)
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of thoracoscopic thymectomy for the treatment of Masaoka stage I and II thymoma. METHODS We evaluated the short-term outcomes of 40 patients undergoing surgery for Masaoka stage I and II thymomas without myasthenia gravis between July 2000 and July 2008. Of these, 22 patients underwent(More)