Learn More
We have produced a draft sequence of the rice genome for the most widely cultivated subspecies in China, Oryza sativa L. ssp. indica, by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The genome was 466 megabases in size, with an estimated 46,022 to 55,615 genes. Functional coverage in the assembled sequences was 92.0%. About 42.2% of the genome was in exact(More)
Cucumber is an economically important crop as well as a model system for sex determination studies and plant vascular biology. Here we report the draft genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. sativus L., assembled using a novel combination of traditional Sanger and next-generation Illumina GA sequencing technologies to obtain 72.2-fold genome coverage. The(More)
Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) is the world's most important non-grain food crop and is central to global food security. It is clonally propagated, highly heterozygous, autotetraploid, and suffers acute inbreeding depression. Here we use a homozygous doubled-monoploid potato clone to sequence and assemble 86% of the 844-megabase genome. We predict 39,031(More)
Cortical growth and remodeling continues from birth through youth and adolescence to stable adult levels changing slowly into senescence. There are critical periods of cortical development when specific experiences drive major synaptic rearrangements and learning that only occur during the critical period. For example, visual cortex is characterized by a(More)
Cytokines and alcohol share a common modulation of inflammation and hormones as well as being implicated in multiple diseases, but the mechanisms are poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the interaction of liver, serum and brain cytokines as well as whether ethanol would potentiate endotoxin (Lipopolysaccharide, LPS) responses(More)
BACKGROUND The first identified cases of avian influenza A(H7N9) virus infection in humans occurred in China during February and March 2013. We analyzed data obtained from field investigations to describe the epidemiologic characteristics of H7N9 cases in China identified as of December 1, 2013. METHODS Field investigations were conducted for each(More)
Cytokines and microglia have been implicated in anxiety, depression, neurodegeneration as well as the regulation of alcohol drinking and other consumatory behaviors, all of which are associated with alcoholism. Studies using animal models of alcoholism suggest that microglia and proinflammatory cytokines contribute to alcoholic pathologies [Crews, F.T.,(More)
BACKGROUND Binge drinking is common in human adolescents. The adolescent brain is undergoing structural maturation and has a unique sensitivity to alcohol neurotoxicity. Therefore, adolescent binge ethanol may have long-term effects on the adult brain that alter brain structure and behaviors that are relevant to alcohol-use disorders. METHODS To determine(More)
Quantitative tracking of particle motion using live-cell imaging is a powerful approach to understanding the mechanism of transport of biological molecules, organelles, and cells. However, inferring complex stochastic motion models from single-particle trajectories in an objective manner is nontrivial due to noise from sampling limitations and biological(More)
The brown planthopper (BPH) is the most destructive pest of rice (Oryza sativa) and a substantial threat to rice production, causing losses of billions of dollars annually. Breeding of resistant cultivars is currently hampered by the rapid breakdown of BPH resistance. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify more effective BPH-resistance genes. Here, we(More)