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In this paper, we propose a scheme to simultaneously prove the correctness of both shuffling and decryption. Our scheme is the most efficient of all previous schemes, as a total, in proving the correctness of both shuffling and decryption of ElGamal ciphertexts. We also propose a formal definition for the core requirement of unlinkability in verifiable(More)
Aluminium (Al) toxicity is an important limitation to barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on acid soil. Al-resistant cultivars of barley detoxify Al externally by secreting citrate from the roots. To link the genetics and physiology of Al resistance in barley, genes controlling Al resistance and Al-activated secretion of citrate were mapped. An analysis of(More)
We propose an authentication scheme in which users can be authenticated anonymously so long as times that they are authenticated is within an allowable number. The proposed scheme has two features that allow 1) no one, not even an authority, identify users who have been authenticated within the allowable number, and that allow 2) anyone to trace, without(More)