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In this paper, we propose a novel and efficient protocol for proving the correctness of a shuffle, without leaking how the shuffle was performed. Using this protocol, we can prove the correctness of a shuffle of n data with roughly 18n exponentiations, where as the protocol of Sako-Kilian[SK95] required 642n and that of Abe[Ab99] required 22n log n. The(More)
In this paper, we propose a scheme to simultaneously prove the correctness of both shuffling and decryption. Our scheme is the most efficient of all previous schemes, as a total, in proving the correctness of both shuffling and decryption of ElGamal ciphertexts. We also propose a formal definition for the core requirement of unlinkability in verifiable(More)
SUMMARY In this paper, we propose an efficient protocol for proving the correctness of shuffling and an efficient protocol for simultaneously proving the correctness of both shuffling and decryption. The former protocol is the most efficient in computational and communication complexity among 3-move honest verifier perfect zero-knowledge protocols for(More)
Aluminium (Al) toxicity is an important limitation to barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) on acid soil. Al-resistant cultivars of barley detoxify Al externally by secreting citrate from the roots. To link the genetics and physiology of Al resistance in barley, genes controlling Al resistance and Al-activated secretion of citrate were mapped. An analysis of(More)
We propose an authentication scheme in which users can be authenticated anonymously so long as times that they are authenticated is within an allowable number. The proposed scheme has two features that allow 1) no one, not even an authority, identify users who have been authenticated within the allowable number, and that allow 2) anyone to trace, without(More)
Broadcast encryption schemes enable senders to efficiently broadcast ciphertexts to a large set of receivers in a way that only non-revoked receivers can decrypt them. Identity-based encryption schemes are public key encryption schemes that can use arbitrary strings as public keys. We propose the first public key broadcast encryption scheme that can use any(More)