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Leptin acts as a modulator of diverse reproductive functions, and recent studies have implicated involvement of leptin in the early embryo development in mammal. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression of leptin and its receptor (OB-R) in mouse oocyte and preimplantation embryo, and to examine whether leptin influenced the early embryo(More)
Although ghrelin acts as a modulator of feeding behavior and energy metabolism in the central nervous system, recent studies have implicated the peripheral actions of ghrelin in reproductive tissues. Here, we investigated the expression of ghrelin and its receptor (GHS-R) in mouse oocyte and preimplantation embryos, and we examined the role of ghrelin in(More)
Apoptosis is an essential physiologic process used in almost all tissues to remove damaged or superfluous cells. However, the early embryos are unique because no cell death is found up to the blastocyst stage during normal development. Survivin, a member of the IAP family, is capable of binding to caspases to modulate their functions. Here, we investigated(More)
Successful implantation of the blastocyst and subsequent placental development is essential for reproduction. Expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4/5, together with their receptor, tyrosine kinase B (TrkB), in trophectoderm cells of blastocyst suggests their potential roles in implantation and placental development. Here(More)
Transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) is produced by epithelial cells in the oviducts and uteri and has the potential to act as an anti-apoptotic factor on preimplantation embryos expressing its receptor. Previously, we demonstrated that survivin (also known as BIRC5), an anti-apoptotic gene expressed in mouse preimplantation embryos, protects embryos(More)
Survival and apoptosis of cells in preimplantation embryos are fundamental for successful pregnancy. Relevant to these processes, tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) are produced by mammalian oviducts and uteri. In early embryos, TNF induces apoptosis, whereas TGFA could act as a survival factor. Here we investigated the(More)
OBJECTIVES To determine the relationship between histopathological prognostic factors and sites of initial recurrence in endometrioid uterine cancer. METHODS A total of 355 patients (Stage I, n=227; II, n=38; III, n=90) underwent primary radical surgery including complete systematic pelvic lymph node (PLN) and para-aortic lymph node (PALN) adenectomy(More)
Hormonal factors secreted by embryos and reproductive tracts are important for successful development of preimplantation embryos. We found expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophin-4/5 (NT-4/5) transcripts at its highest levels in the blastocyst stages. The transcripts for their receptor, TrkB, were detectable throughout the(More)
Both GnRH-I and its receptor (GnRHR)-I have been shown to be expressed in the mammalian preimplantation embryo. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms of GnRH-I in the regulation of early embryonic development in mouse. We found that GnRH-I and GnRHR-I mRNAs were detectable throughout early embryonic stages and that expression levels of(More)