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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) promotes long-term potentiation (LTP) at hippocampal CA1 synapses by a presynaptic enhancement of synaptic transmission during high-frequency stimulation (HFS). Here we have investigated the mechanisms of BDNF action using two lines of BDNF knockout mice. Among other presynaptic impairments, the mutant mice exhibited(More)
This letter presents a regression-based speech enhancement framework using deep neural networks (DNNs) with a multiple-layer deep architecture. In the DNN learning process, a large training set ensures a powerful modeling capability to estimate the complicated nonlinear mapping from observed noisy speech to desired clean signals. Acoustic context was found(More)
In contrast to the conventional minimum mean square error (MMSE)-based noise reduction techniques, we propose a supervised method to enhance speech by means of finding a mapping function between noisy and clean speech signals based on deep neural networks (DNNs). In order to be able to handle a wide range of additive noises in real-world situations, a large(More)
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) prevents lesion-induced death of midbrain dopaminergic neurons, but its function in normal brain remains uncertain. Here we show that GDNF acutely and reversibly potentiated the excitability of cultured midbrain neurons by inhibiting transient A-type K(+) channels. The effects of GDNF were limited to large,(More)
The voltage-dependent potassium channel subunit Kv2.1 is widely expressed throughout the mammalian CNS and is clustered primarily on the somata and proximal dendrites, but not axons, of both principal neurones and inhibitory interneurones of the cortex and hippocampus. This expression pattern suggests that Kv2.1-containing channels may play a role in the(More)
Moving object segmentation in compressed domain plays an important role in many real-time applications, e.g. video indexing, video transcoding, video surveillance, etc. Because H.264/AVC is the up-to-date video-coding standard, few literatures have been reported in the area of video analysis on H.264/AVC compressed video. Compared with the former MPEG(More)
The expression of the voltage-gated K(+)-channel subunit Kv3.1b in the developing hippocampus was determined by immunoblot and immunohistochemical techniques. Kv3.1b protein was detected first at postnatal day (P) 8. The Kv3.1b-immunopositive cell number per tissue section reached a maximum at P14 and was maintained through P40. In contrast, the Kv3.1b(More)
Ethanol was a major byproduct of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) fermentation by Klebsiella oxytoca ME-UD-3. In order to achieve a high efficiency of 2,3-BD production, K. oxytoca mutants deficient in ethanol formation were successfully constructed by replace the aldA gene coding for aldehyde dehydrogenase with a tetracycline resistance cassette. The results(More)
BACKGROUND Circulating microRNAs (miRNAs) have been implicated as novel biomarkers for gastric cancer (GC) diagnosis. However, the mixture of GC subtypes may have led to the inconsistent circulating miRNA profiles, and the clinical performance of circulating miRNAs has not yet been evaluated independently on early detection of GC. METHODS A four-phase(More)
A fundamental difference between short-term and long-term forms of synaptic plasticity is the dependence on transcription and translation of new genes. Using organotypic cultures of hippocampal slices, we have investigated whether the modulation of synapses by brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) also requires protein synthesis. Long-term treatment of(More)