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We performed in silico modeling of the regulatory network of mitochondrial apoptosis through which we examined the role of a Bax-activation switch in governing the mitochondrial apoptosis decision. Two distinct modeling methods were used in this article. One is continuous and deterministic, comprised of a set of ordinary differential equations. The other,(More)
Straw return has been widely recommended as an environmentally friendly practice to manage carbon (C) sequestration in agricultural ecosystems. However, the overall trend and magnitude of changes in soil C in response to straw return remain uncertain. In this meta-analysis, we calculated the response ratios of soil organic C (SOC) concentrations, greenhouse(More)
Nod-like receptors (NLRs) are intracellular sensors that respond to a variety of pathogen and intracellular danger signals to induce innate immune responses. NLRC5 has recently been identified to be an important regulator of NF-κB, type I interferon (IFN) and inflammasome signaling pathways, but the in vivo function and mechanisms of NLRC5 remain to be(More)
BACKGROUND The complex interplay between B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins constitutes a crucial checkpoint in apoptosis. Its detailed molecular mechanism remains controversial. Our former modeling studies have selected the 'Direct Activation Model' as a better explanation for experimental observations. In this paper, we continue to extend this(More)
Microcystins (MCs) are hepatotoxins produced by a variety of freshwater cyanobacteria. The toxicity of these hepatotoxins is a severe health issue for both humans and livestock; MCs have been implicated in the development of liver cancer, necrosis, and even deadly intrahepatic bleeding. Microcystin-LR (MC-LR) is the MC variant most commonly encountered in a(More)
Stringent control of the NF-kappaB and type I interferon signaling pathways is critical to effective host immune responses, yet the molecular mechanisms that negatively regulate these pathways are poorly understood. Here, we show that NLRC5, a member of the highly conserved NOD-like protein family, can inhibit the IKK complex and RIG-I/MDA5 function. NLRC5(More)
Stringent control of the type I interferon signaling pathway is important for maintaining host immune responses and homeostasis, yet the molecular mechanisms responsible for its tight regulation are still poorly understood. Here we report that the pattern-recognition receptor NLRP4 regulated the activation of type I interferon mediated by double-stranded(More)
Stringent control of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling is critical during innate immune responses. TGF-β activated kinase-1 (TAK1) is essential for NF-κB activation in T and B cells but has precisely the opposite activity in myeloid cells. Specific deletion of TAK1 (Map3k7(ΔM/ΔM)) led to development of splenomegaly and lymphomegaly(More)
Lysine 63 (K63)-linked ubiquitination of RIG-I plays a critical role in the activation of type I interferon pathway, yet the molecular mechanism responsible for its deubiquitination is still poorly understood. Here we report that the deubiquitination enzyme ubiquitin-specific protease 3 (USP3) negatively regulates the activation of type I interferon(More)
In this paper two competing models of the B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) apoptotic switch were contrasted by mathematical modeling and robustness analysis. Since switch-like behaviors are required for models that attempt to explain the all-or-none decisions of apoptosis, ultrasensitivity was employed as a criterion for comparison. Our results successfully(More)