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Embryonic stem (ES) cells are unique in their ability to self-renew indefinitely and maintain pluripotency. These properties require transcription factors that specify the gene expression programme of ES cells. It has been possible to reverse the highly differentiated state of somatic cells back to a pluripotent state with a combination of four(More)
UNLABELLED The differentiation capacity of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) holds great promise for therapeutic applications. We report a novel three-stage method to efficiently direct the differentiation of human embryonic stem cells into hepatic cells in serum-free medium. Human ESCs were first differentiated into definitive endoderm cells by 3 days of(More)
In the developing spinal cord, early progenitor cells of the oligodendrocyte lineage are induced in the motor neuron progenitor (pMN) domain of the ventral neuroepithelium by the ventral midline signal Sonic hedgehog (Shh). The ventral generation of oligodendrocytes requires Nkx6-regulated expression of the bHLH gene Olig2 in this domain. In the absence of(More)
Yang Zhao,1,4 Xiaolei Yin,1,2,4 Han Qin,1,2,4 Fangfang Zhu,1,2,5 Haisong Liu,1,2,5 Weifeng Yang,1,5 Qiang Zhang,1,2,5 Chengang Xiang,1,2,5 Pingping Hou,1,5 Zhihua Song,1,2 Yanxia Liu,1,2 Jun Yong,1 Pengbo Zhang,1 Jun Cai,1 Meng Liu,1,2 Honggang Li,1 Yanqin Li,1 Xiuxia Qu,1 Kai Cui,1 Weiqi Zhang,1 Tingting Xiang,1 Yetao Wu,1,2 Yiding Zhao,1 Chun Liu,1,2 Chen(More)
5-methylcytosine is a major epigenetic modification that is sometimes called "the fifth nucleotide." However, our knowledge of how offspring inherit the DNA methylome from parents is limited. We generated nine single-base resolution DNA methylomes, including zebrafish gametes and early embryos. The oocyte methylome is significantly hypomethylated compared(More)
Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells are similar to embryonic stem (ES) cells, and can proliferate intensively and differentiate into a variety of cell types. However, the hepatic differentiation of human iPS cells has not yet been reported. In this report, human iPS cells were induced to differentiate into hepatic cells by a stepwise protocol. The(More)
Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has been identified as one of the most potent of endogenous negative regulators of blood vessel growth in the body. Here we report that PEDF is able to inhibit growth factor-induced angiogenesis in microvascular endothelial cells through a novel pathway requiring cleavage and intracellular translocation of the(More)
In this paper, we study ruin probabilities in two generalized risk models. The effects of timing of payments and interest on the ruin probabilities in the models are considered. The rates of interest are assumed to have a dependent autoregressive structure. Generalized Lundberg inequalities for the ruin probabilities are derived by a renewal recursive(More)