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Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) can identify common alleles that contribute to complex disease susceptibility. Despite the large number of SNPs assessed in each study, the effects of most common SNPs must be evaluated indirectly using either genotyped markers or haplotypes thereof as proxies. We have previously implemented a computationally efficient(More)
Parkinson disease is a common neurodegenerative disorder that leads to difficulty in effectively translating thought into action. Although it is known that dopaminergic neurons that innervate the striatum die in Parkinson disease, it is not clear how this loss leads to symptoms. Recent work has implicated striatopallidal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in this(More)
Dopamine shapes a wide variety of psychomotor functions. This is mainly accomplished by modulating cortical and thalamic glutamatergic signals impinging upon principal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) of the striatum. Several lines of evidence suggest that dopamine D1 receptor signaling enhances dendritic excitability and glutamatergic signaling in striatonigral(More)
Salient stimuli redirect attention and suppress ongoing motor activity. This attentional shift is thought to rely upon thalamic signals to the striatum to shift cortically driven action selection, but the network mechanisms underlying this interaction are unclear. Using a brain slice preparation that preserved cortico- and thalamostriatal connectivity, it(More)
The two principal excitatory glutamatergic inputs to striatal medium spiny neurons (MSNs) arise from neurons in the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Although there have been many electrophysiological studies of MSN glutamatergic synapses, little is known about how corticostriatal and thalamostriatal synapses differ. Using mouse brain slices that allowed each(More)
Long-term depression (LTD) of the synapse formed between cortical pyramidal neurons and striatal medium spiny neurons is central to many theories of motor plasticity and associative learning. The induction of LTD at this synapse is thought to depend upon D(2) dopamine receptors localized in the postsynaptic membrane. If this were true, LTD should be(More)
The substantia nigra pars compacta and ventral tegmental area contain the two largest populations of dopamine-releasing neurons in the mammalian brain. These neurons extend elaborate projections in the striatum, a large subcortical structure implicated in motor planning and reward-based learning. Phasic activation of dopaminergic neurons in response to(More)
Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative disorder whose symptoms are caused by the loss of dopaminergic neurons innervating the striatum. As striatal dopamine levels fall, striatal acetylcholine release rises, exacerbating motor symptoms. This adaptation is commonly attributed to the loss of interneuronal regulation by inhibitory D(2) dopamine receptors.(More)
Psoriasis is a common immune-mediated disorder that affects the skin, nails and joints. To identify psoriasis susceptibility loci, we genotyped 438,670 SNPs in 1,409 psoriasis cases and 1,436 controls of European ancestry. We followed up 21 promising SNPs in 5,048 psoriasis cases and 5,041 controls. Our results provide strong support for the association of(More)
Posttranslational modifications (PTMs) of proteins are responsible for sensing and transducing signals to regulate various cellular functions and signaling events. S-nitrosylation (SNO) is one of the most important and universal PTMs. With the avalanche of protein sequences generated in the post-genomic age, it is highly desired to develop computational(More)