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Results from studies of oculomotor tracking in one dimension have indicated that saccades are driven primarily by errors in position, whereas smooth pursuit movements are driven primarily by errors in velocity. To test whether this result generalizes to two-dimensional tracking, we asked subjects to track a target that moved initially in a straight line(More)
To identify rat brainstem nuclei involved in the initial, short-term response to a change in gravito-inertial force, adult Long-Evans rats were rotated in the horizontal plane for 90 min in complete darkness after they were eccentrically positioned off the axis of rotation (off-axis) causing a centripetal acceleration of 2 g. Neural activation was defined(More)
Subjects were asked to track, with their eyes or their hand, the movement of a target that maintained a constant speed and made a single, abrupt change in direction. The tracking speed and direction of motion after the step change in target direction were compared for the eyes and the hand. After removal of the saccades from the eye movement records, it was(More)
Measurement were made of the cochlear potentials in three specimens of the giant sea turtle, Chelonia mydas, in response to both aerial and mechanical stimulation of the ear. The results show maximum sensitivity in the region of 300 to 400 Hz, with a rather rapid decline in sensitivity for lower and especially for higher tones. The upper limit for the(More)
Quantitative, single-voxel proton NMR spectroscopy of normal brain was performed in five adult beagle dogs using the cerebral water signal as an internal intensity reference. The same brain regions were then rapidly isolated and frozen using a pneumatic biopsy drill, perchloric acid extracted, and analyzed by biochemical assay and high-resolution NMR(More)
Detection of Fos protein expression with a polyclonal antibody was used to identify brainstem neurons responding to acute (24 h) effects of a unilateral sodium arsanilate chemical labyrinthectomy in Long-Evans rats. Asymmetrical expression was apparent in the medial and inferior vestibular nuclei, the prepositus hypoglossi, the dorsolateral central gray,(More)
Many of the symptoms described in Sick Building Syndrome (SBS) and multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) resemble the symptoms known to be elicited by airborne irritant chemicals. Irritation of the eye, nose, and throat is common to SBS, MCS, and sensory irritation (SI). Difficulty of breathing is often seen with SBS, MCS, and pulmonary irritation (PI). We(More)
AIMS To evaluate the long-term effectiveness of Humalog insulin in lowering post meal glucose excursions. METHODS Twenty young subjects with Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM) who had received insulin-lispro (Humalog) for a least 1 year (mean +/- SD 1.8+/-1.6 years) were studied on two occasions, 3-14 days apart. They consumed a similar breakfast consisting of(More)
PURPOSE Percutaneous renal access can be challenging, particularly when the collecting system is not distended. Precise entry into a selected calyx facilitates subsequent percutaneous manipulations, but this skill requires extensive experience. In an attempt to improve accuracy while decreasing technical challenges, we developed a robotic system that(More)