Julio O. Ortiz

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Recent advances have led to insights into the structure of the bacterial ribosome, but little is known about the 3D organization of ribosomes in the context of translating polysomes. We employed cryoelectron tomography and a template-matching approach to map 70S ribosomes in vitrified bacterial translation extracts and in lysates of active E. coli(More)
Cryoelectron tomography (CET) combines the potential of three-dimensional (3D) imaging with a close-to-life preservation of biological samples. It allows the examination of large and stochastically variable structures, such as organelles or whole cells. At the current resolution it becomes possible to visualize large macromolecular complexes in their(More)
During gene transcription, RNA polymerase (Pol) passes through repetitive cycles of adding a nucleotide to the growing mRNA chain. Here we obtained a movie of the nucleotide addition cycle by combining structural information on different functional states of the Pol II elongation complex (EC). The movie illustrates the two-step loading of the nucleoside(More)
Stochastic expression of genes produces heterogeneity in clonal populations of bacteria under identical conditions. We analyze and compare the behavior of the inducible lac genetic switch using well-stirred and spatially resolved simulations for Escherichia coli cells modeled under fast and slow-growth conditions. Our new kinetic model describing the(More)
Veterinary inspection in slaughterhouses allows for the detection of macroscopic lesions reminiscent of bovine tuberculosis, but the presence of Mycobacterium bovis must be confirmed by laboratory methods. This study aimed at comparing the performances of the standard diagnostic tools used to identify M. bovis in tissue specimens sampled from suspicious(More)
Isolated pulmonic valve infective endocarditis is an uncommon clinical entity. We report our experience with three patients diagnosed with pulmonic valve endocarditis from our institution. Two cases were caused by Enterococcus faecalis (one was resistant to vancomycin) and one by coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS). One of the cases of isolated pulmonic(More)
Ribosomes arranged in pairs (100S) have been related with nutritional stress response and are believed to represent a "hibernation state." Several proteins have been identified that are associated with 100S ribosomes but their spatial organization has hitherto not been characterized. We have used cryoelectron tomography to reveal the three-dimensional(More)
We focus on the established kinetochore proteins of the budding yeast,Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The location and functional evidence for each kinetochore protein is summarized along with the data that supports protein-protein and genetic interactions. Models are proposed to illustrate how these kinetochore proteins assemble to evoke a kinetochore-centromere(More)
The New Millennium Interferometer Laser Metrology Testbed is a technology demonstration for a key component of the New Millennium Interferometer (NMI). For the success of NMI, NASA's proposed mission to fly a space-based interferometer, control of its position must be very precise. Laser Metrology is a powerful tool that uses interferometry to make(More)
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