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The spectral characteristics of smoothly varying type 2 signals were studied using two 50-MHz CW radio links. The echoes observed came from two closely located scattering volumes where the… (More)
The observed characteristics of radio auroral backscatter at large aspect angles have never been adequately explained by theories of plasma turbulence that otherwise seem to be satisfactory.… (More)
The aim of this work is to deduce optimality conditions for a nonlocal variational principle in the one-dimensional scalar case.We consider the relaxation of the problem in terms of Young… (More)
First-order Lagrangian densities with first-order Euler–Lagrange operator are characterized. Variationally trivia lL agrangians and locally variational operators of first order are determined.