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Single cells were recorded in the visual cortex of monkeys trained to attend to stimuli at one location in the visual field and ignore stimuli at another. When both locations were within the receptive field of a cell in prestriate area V4 or the inferior temporal cortex, the response to the unattended stimulus was dramatically reduced. Cells in the striate(More)
Single cells were recorded from cortical area V4 of two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) trained on a visual discrimination task with two levels of difficulty. Behavioral evidence indicated that the monkeys' discriminative abilities improved when the task was made more difficult. Correspondingly, neuronal responses to stimuli became larger and more selective(More)
The corticocortical pathway from striate cortex into the temporal lobe plays a crucial role in the visual recognition of objects. Anatomical studies indicate that this pathway is mainly organized as a serial hierarchy of multiple visual areas, including V1, V2, V3, V4, and inferior temporal cortex (IT). As expected from the anatomy, we have found that(More)
In this work we examined the time course and the amount released, by hyposmolarity, for the most abundant free amino acids (FAA) in rat brain cortex astrocytes and neurons in culture. The aim was to evaluate their contribution to the process of cell volume regulation. Taurine, glutamate, and D-aspartate in the two types of cells, beta-alanine in astrocytes(More)
The classically defined receptive fields of V4 cells are confined almost entirely to the contralateral visual field. However, these receptive fields are often surrounded by large, silent suppressive regions, and stimulating the surrounds can cause a complete suppression of response to a simultaneously presented stimulus within the receptive field. We(More)
Prolonged activation of glutamate receptors leads to excitotoxicity. Several processes such as reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and activation of the calcium-dependent protease, calpain, contribute to glutamate-induced damage. It has been suggested that the ROS-producing enzyme, NADPH oxidase (NOX), plays a role in excitotoxicity. Studies have(More)
Excessive calcium is responsible for triggering different potentially fatal metabolic pathways during neurodegeneration. In this study, we evaluated the role of calcium on the oxidative damage produced in an in vitro combined model of excitotoxicity/energy deficit produced by the co-administration of quinolinate and 3-nitropropionate to brain synaptosomal(More)
When cultured cerebellar granule neurons (CGN) are transferred from 25 mM KCl (K25) to 5 mM KCl (K5) caspase-3 and caspase-8, but not caspase-1 or caspase-9,activities are induced and cells die apoptotically. CGN death was triggered by a [Ca(2+)](i) modification when [Ca(2+)](i) was reduced from 300 nM to 50 nM in a K5 medium. The [Ca(2+)](i) changes were(More)
Regulatory volume decrease (RVD) in detached cerebellar astrocytes in culture after acute exposure to hyposmolarity was characterized in this and the accompanying paper [H. Pasantes-Morales, R. A. Murray, R. Sanches-Olea, and J. Moran. Am. J. Physiol. 266 (Cell Physiol. 35): C172-C178, 1994]. RVD was independent of extracellular calcium, was accelerated at(More)
The participation of GABAergic mechanisms in the regulation of circadian rhythmicity by the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) has been suggested from different lines of evidence. Little is known, however, whether GABA synthesis, release, uptake or content within the SCN may show a circadian pattern. The present results show that the activity of the GABAergic(More)