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We investigate the relationship between structure and robustness in the metabolic networks of Escherichia coli, Methanosarcina barkeri, Staphylococcus aureus, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae, using a cascading failure model based on a topological flux balance criterion. We find that, compared to appropriate null models, the metabolic networks are exceptionally(More)
Granular surface flows are common in industrial practice and natural systems, however, theoretical description of such flows is at present incomplete. Two prototype systems involving surface flow are compared: heap formation by pouring at a point and rotating cylinders. Continuum models for analysis of these flows are reviewed, and experimental results for(More)
Scientific breakthroughs occur at the edges of disciplines. Often ideas originating in one field find successful applications in other fields, sometimes leading to revolutionary shifts. Complexity is regarded by many to be such an example. Complex systems can be identified by what they do — display organization without a central organizing principle(More)
We analyze the dynamics of a two-dimensional drop lying on a fluid interface, sometimes called a liquid lens, subjected to simple shear flow. The three fluids, the drop and the two external fluids, meet at a triple point (or a triple line in three dimensions). A requirement for steady drop shapes is that the triple points are stationary. This leads to a(More)
1. INTRODUCTION 1.1 Setting The establishment of a paradigm for mixing of fluids can substantially affect the development of various branches of physical sciences and technology. Mixing is intimately connected with turbulence, Earth and natural sciences, and various branches of engineering. However, in spite of its universality, there have been surprisingly(More)
We investigate the effect of nanoscale variations in the surface roughness of individual particles on macroscale granular flow characteristics. Experiments were conducted in circular rotating tumblers with smooth and rough 2 and 3 mm steel particles. The smooth beads had a rms surface roughness of approximately 30 to 60 nm; rough beads had a surface(More)
This study considers the transport of oxygen (a growth-associated solute) and lactate (a metabolic byproduct) in a flat-bed perfusion chamber modified to retain cells through the addition of grooves, perpendicular to the direction of flow, at the chamber bottom. The chamber has been successfully applied to hematopoietic cell culture and may be useful for(More)
Mixing of granular solids is invariably accompanied by segregation, however, the fundamentals of the process are not well understood. We analyze density and size segregation in a chute flow of cohesionless spherical particles by means of computations and theory based on the transport equations for a mixture of nearly elastic particles. Computations for(More)