We present an architecture for robot control which can be viewed as a very fine-grained layered architecture motivated by the principles underlying the subsumption architecture. The subsumption architecture provides a powerful means for defining intelligent robot control mechanisms through the layered composition of simple behaviors. However, we have found… (More)
We present a set of architectural concepts which address the needs for integrating high-level planning activities with lower-level reactive or participatory behaviors. Based on lessons learned from our experience with a hierarchical architecture for autonomous crosscountry navigation, we have come to recognize various pitfalls that may arise from the misuse… (More)
Our experience over the years with different architectures and planning systems for mobile robots has led us to a distributed approach where an arbiter receives votes for and against commands from each subsystem and decides upon the course of action which best satisfies the current goals and constraints of the system. Centralized arbitration of votes from… (More)
* New address as of November 3, 1997: A new means of distributed action selection via utility fusion is introduced here as an alternative to both the bottlenecks of centralized systems and the incoherent action selection of distributed systems. Within the utility fusion framework, distributed, independent, asynchronous behaviors indicate the utility of… (More)
In unstructured, unknown, and dynamic environments, planning systems cannot generate a plan a priori that can be expected to perform reasonably in the face of such uncertainty, nor can they anticipate all contingencies that may arise; instead, decision-making must be based on current information and state at all times, proceeding in a data-driven manner,… (More)
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We describe a GOMS model of a ship-board Radar Operator's behavior while monitoring air and sea traffic. GOMS is a technique that has been successfully used in Human-Computer Interaction to generate engineering models of human performance. Based on the GOMS model developed, we identified those portions of the task where an intelligent agent would be most… (More)
This paper discusses a method that enables reliable docking of a mobile robot with a rectangular container. The process involves an aligned approach to the container while avoiding any obstacles in the region and avoiding collision with the container itself. A modular behaviour-based architecture called the Distributed Architecture for Mobile Navigation… (More)