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Single-molecule atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to investigate the mechanical properties of titin, the giant sarcomeric protein of striated muscle. Individual titin molecules were repeatedly stretched, and the applied force was recorded as a function of the elongation. At large extensions, the restoring force exhibited a sawtoothlike pattern, with a(More)
A lambda insertion type cDNA cloning vector, Lambda ZAP, has been constructed. In E. coli a phagemid, pBluescript SK(-), contained within the vector, can be excised by f1 or M13 helper phage. The excision process eliminates the need to subclone DNA inserts from the lambda phage into a plasmid by restriction digestion and ligation. This is possible because(More)
We present Monte Carlo simulations for the elasticity of biopolymers consisting of segments that can undergo conformational transitions. Based on the thermodynamics of an elastically coupled twolevel system, the probability for a transition and a related change in length of each segment was calculated. Good agreement between this model description and(More)
Through the study of single molecules it has become possible to explain the function of many of the complex molecular assemblies found in cells. The protein titin provides muscle with its passive elasticity. Each titin molecule extends over half a sarcomere, and its extensibility has been studied both in situ and at the level of single molecules. These(More)
Mechanically induced conformational changes in proteins such as fibronectin are thought to regulate the assembly of the extracellular matrix and underlie its elasticity and extensibility. Fibronectin contains a region of tandem repeats of up to 15 type III domains that play critical roles in cell binding and self-assembly. Here, we use single-molecule force(More)
Gastric cancer is a heterogeneous disease with diverse molecular and histological subtypes. We performed whole-genome sequencing in 100 tumor-normal pairs, along with DNA copy number, gene expression and methylation profiling, for integrative genomic analysis. We found subtype-specific genetic and epigenetic perturbations and unique mutational signatures.(More)
Proteolytic machines powered by ATP hydrolysis bind proteins with specific peptide tags, denature these substrates, and translocate them into a sequestered compartment for degradation. To determine how ATP is used during individual reaction steps, we assayed ClpXP degradation of ssrA-tagged titin variants with different stabilities in native and denatured(More)
We used force-clamp atomic force microscopy to measure the end-to-end length of the small protein ubiquitin during its folding reaction at the single-molecule level. Ubiquitin was first unfolded and extended at a high force, then the stretching force was quenched and protein folding was observed. The folding trajectories were continuous and marked by(More)
It is possible to travel back in time at the molecular level by reconstructing proteins from extinct organisms. Here we report the reconstruction, based on sequence predicted by phylogenetic analysis, of seven Precambrian thioredoxin enzymes (Trx) dating back between ~1.4 and ~4 billion years (Gyr). The reconstructed enzymes are up to 32 °C more stable than(More)
The molecular mechanism by which a mechanical stimulus is translated into a chemical response in biological systems is still unclear. We show that mechanical stretching of single cytoplasmic proteins can activate binding of other molecules. We used magnetic tweezers, total internal reflection fluorescence, and atomic force microscopy to investigate the(More)