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The reduction of oxygen to water proceeds via one electron at a time. In the mitochondrial respiratory chain, Complex IV (cytochrome oxidase) retains all partially reduced intermediates until full reduction is achieved. Other redox centres in the electron transport chain, however, may leak electrons to oxygen, partially reducing this molecule to superoxide(More)
Much evidence indicates that superoxide is generated from O2 in a cyanide-sensitive reaction involving a reduced component of complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, particularly when antimycin A is present. Although it is generally believed that ubisemiquinone is the electron donor to O2, little experimental evidence supporting this view has(More)
Submitochondrial particles from bovine heart in which NADH dehydrogenase is reduced by either addition of NADH and rotenone or by reversed electron transfer generate 0.9 +/- 0.1 nmol of O2-/min per mg of protein at pH 7.4 and at 30 degrees C. When NADH is used as substrate, rotenone, antimycin and cyanide increase O2- production. In NADH- and(More)
This mini-review describes the role of different mitochondrial components in the formation of reactive oxygen species under normal and pathological conditions and the effect of inhibitors and uncouplers on superoxide formation. Most of the oxygen consumed by aerobic organisms is reduced to water by the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase in the terminal reaction of(More)
Recently, it has become apparent that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage can rapidly initiate apoptosis independent of mutations, although the mechanism involved remains unclear. To elucidate this mechanism, angiotensin II-mediated apoptosis was studied in cells that were transduced with a lentiviral vector to overexpress the DNA repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine(More)
The presence of heme-containing catalase in rat heart mitochondria (20 +/- 5 units/mg) was demonstrated by biochemical and immunocytochemical analysis. Intact rat heart mitochondria efficiently consumed exogenously added H2O2. The rate of H2O2 consumption was not influenced by succinate, glutamate/malate, or N-ethylmaleimide but was significantly inhibited(More)
Conscious pigs underwent a sequence of 10 2-min coronary occlusions, each separated by 2 min of reperfusion, for three consecutive days (days 1, 2, and 3). On day 1, pigs received an i.v. infusion of a combination of antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and N-2 mercaptopropionyl glycine; group II, n = 9), nisoldipine (group III, n = 6), or vehicle(More)
Ischemia and reperfusion causes severe mitochondrial damage, including swelling and deposits of hydroxyapatite crystals in the mitochondrial matrix. These crystals are indicative of a massive influx of Ca2+ into the mitochondrial matrix occurring during reoxygenation. We have observed that mitochondria isolated from rat hearts after 90 minutes of anoxia(More)
Parasitic protozoa cause several diseases, affecting hundreds of millions, particularly in underdeveloped countries. Although these organisms are eukaryotic cells, some of them present major differences with their mammalian host in selected metabolic pathways. These differences may be exploited as targets for developing better pharmacological agents for the(More)
Trans-resveratrol, one of the antioxidants found in red wine, has been the subject of controversial reports regarding its protective role against cardiovascular diseases. In this study we synthesized trans-resveratrol and injected it to rats (20 and 40 mg/kg body weight, once a day for 21 days, i.p.) to determine its effect on the serum lipid profile.(More)