Julio F. Turrens

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The reduction of oxygen to water proceeds via one electron at a time. In the mitochondrial respiratory chain, Complex IV (cytochrome oxidase) retains all partially reduced intermediates until full reduction is achieved. Other redox centres in the electron transport chain, however, may leak electrons to oxygen, partially reducing this molecule to superoxide(More)
Much evidence indicates that superoxide is generated from O2 in a cyanide-sensitive reaction involving a reduced component of complex III of the mitochondrial respiratory chain, particularly when antimycin A is present. Although it is generally believed that ubisemiquinone is the electron donor to O2, little experimental evidence supporting this view has(More)
Most of the oxygen consumed by aerobic organisms is reduced to water by the enzyme cytochrome c oxidase in the terminal reaction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Since oxygen in the ground state is in a triplet configuration (with two unpaired electrons in the outer shell) its reduction to water must occur in four consecutive one-electron steps. Some(More)
Submitochondrial particles from bovine heart in which NADH dehydrogenase is reduced by either addition of NADH and rotenone or by reversed electron transfer generate 0.9 +/- 0.1 nmol of O2-/min per mg of protein at pH 7.4 and at 30 degrees C. When NADH is used as substrate, rotenone, antimycin and cyanide increase O2- production. In NADH- and(More)
The presence of heme-containing catalase in rat heart mitochondria (20 +/- 5 units/mg) was demonstrated by biochemical and immunocytochemical analysis. Intact rat heart mitochondria efficiently consumed exogenously added H2O2. The rate of H2O2 consumption was not influenced by succinate, glutamate/malate, or N-ethylmaleimide but was significantly inhibited(More)
Recently, it has become apparent that mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) damage can rapidly initiate apoptosis independent of mutations, although the mechanism involved remains unclear. To elucidate this mechanism, angiotensin II-mediated apoptosis was studied in cells that were transduced with a lentiviral vector to overexpress the DNA repair enzyme 8-oxoguanine(More)
Conscious pigs underwent a sequence of 10 2-min coronary occlusions, each separated by 2 min of reperfusion, for three consecutive days (days 1, 2, and 3). On day 1, pigs received an i.v. infusion of a combination of antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, and N-2 mercaptopropionyl glycine; group II, n = 9), nisoldipine (group III, n = 6), or vehicle(More)
The glutathione peroxidase-glutathione reductase system, an alternative pathway for metabolic utilization of H2O2 [Chance, Sies & Boveris (1979) Physiol. Rev. 59, 527-605], was investigated in Trypanosoma cruzi, an organism lacking catalase and deficient in peroxidase [Boveris & Stoppani (1977) Experientia 33, 1306-1308]. The presence of glutathione (4.9(More)
Survival of rats exposed to 100% oxygen was increased from 69.5 +/- 1.5 to 118.1 +/- 9.9 h (mean +/- SEM, P less than 0.05) when liposomes containing catalase and superoxide dismutase were injected intravenously before and during exposure. The increased survival time in 100% oxygen was also associated with significantly less fluid in the pleural cavity.(More)
Parasitic protozoa cause several diseases, affecting hundreds of millions, particularly in underdeveloped countries. Although these organisms are eukaryotic cells, some of them present major differences with their mammalian host in selected metabolic pathways. These differences may be exploited as targets for developing better pharmacological agents for the(More)