Julio Alberto Urbina

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Through its impact on worker productivity, premature disability, and death, Chagas disease accounts for 670,000 disability-adjusted life years per annum [1]. This makes it the most important parasitic disease of the Americas. It is both a disease of poverty (Figures 1 and 2) and, like other neglected tropical diseases, also “poverty promoting” [2].(More)
We report the results of a comparative study of the molecular order and dynamics of phosphatidylcholine (PC) bilayer membranes in the absence and presence of cholesterol, ergosterol and lanosterol, using deuterium (2H) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of deuterated phospholipid molecules, in addition to solid state 13C and 31P-NMR. Using(More)
A critical review of the development of specific chemotherapeutic approaches for the management of American Trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease is presented, including controversies on the pathogenesis of the disease, the initial efforts that led to the development of currently available drugs (nifurtimox and benznidazole), limitations of these therapies and(More)
There is no effective treatment for the prevalent chronic form of Chagas' disease in Latin America. Its causative agent, the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, has an essential requirement for ergosterol, and ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors, such as the antifungal drug posaconazole, have potent trypanocidal activity. The antiarrhythmic compound(More)
We investigated the mechanism of action of metabolically stable lysophospholipid analogues (LPAs), with potent anti-tumour and anti-protozoal activity against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. Against the axenically grown epimastigote form of the parasite, the IC(50)s after 120 h for ET-18-OCH(3), miltefosine and ilmofosine were 3,(More)
In this article we review the current status of chemotherapeutic approaches for the specific treatment of Chagas disease or American Trypanosomiasis, as well as new rational approaches being developed as a consequence on the increased understanding of the biochemistry and physiology of its causative agent, the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Currently(More)
High field (31)P nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that inorganic pyrophosphate (P(2)O(7)(4-)) is more abundant than ATP in Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agents of Chagas' disease. These results were confirmed by specific analytical assays, which showed that in epimastigotes, the concentrations of inorganic pyrophosphate and ATP were 194.7(More)
The antiproliferative effects and ultrastructural alterations induced in vitro by two antifungal compounds, the azole ketoconazole and the allylamine terbinafine on Leishmania amazonensis are reported. Promastigotes treatment with ketoconazole and terbinafine induced growth arrest and cell lysis in 72 hours. Combination of the two agents produced additive(More)
OBJECTIVES Investigation of the antiproliferative synergy of the lysophospholipid analogues (LPAs) edelfosine, ilmofosine and miltefosine with the ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitor ketoconazole against Trypanosoma cruzi. METHODS The effect of LPAs, ketoconazole and their combination was evaluated against epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes by the(More)