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The evolution of cone opsin genes is characterized by a dynamic process of gene birth and death through gene duplication and loss. However, the forces governing the retention and death of opsin genes are poorly understood. African cichlid fishes have a range of ecologies, differing in habitat and foraging style, which make them ideal for examining the(More)
Lake Victoria cichlids are one of the most speciose groups of vertebrates. Selection on coloration is likely playing an important role in their rapid speciation. To test the hypothesis that sensory biases could explain species differences in mating preferences and nuptial coloration, we studied seven populations of four closely related species of the genus(More)
Of the four classes of vertebrate cone visual pigments, the shortwave-sensitive SWS1 class shows some of the largest shifts in lambda(max), with values ranging in different species from 390-435 nm in the violet region of the spectrum to < 360 nm in the ultraviolet. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that the ancestral pigment most probably had a lambda(max) in(More)
The Notothenioid suborder of teleosts comprises a number of species that live below the sea ice of the Antarctic. The presence of 'antifreeze' glycoproteins in these fish as an adaptation to freezing temperature has been well documented but little is known about the adaptations of the visual system of these fish to a light environment in which both the(More)
Of the four classes of vertebrate cone visual pigments, the shortwave-sensitive SWS1 class shows the shortest lambda(max) values with peaks in different species in either the violet (390-435 nm) or ultraviolet (around 365 nm) regions of the spectrum. Phylogenetic evidence indicates that the ancestral pigment was probably UV-sensitive (UVS) and that the(More)
PURPOSE To determine the visual pigment content of the rods and cones of the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) and to quantify the level of coexpression of pigments within individual cones. METHODS Microspectrophotometry was used to measure the absorbance spectrum of visual pigments in individual rods and cones from three retinal regions: dorsal, ventral, and(More)
We investigated the spectral and morphological features of the photoreceptors of five atherinomorph teleosts, representing two different orders, and with different life styles and habitats, the Beloniformes and Atheriniformes. The retinae of Belone belone (Belonidae), Dermogenys pusillus (Hemiramphidae), Atherina boyeri (Atherinidae), Marosatherina ladigesi(More)
Psychiatrists have proposed broadened commitment statues based on need for care and treatment, and under which judges have no role in deciding cases of treatment refusal. The mental health bar has consistently opposed these proposals on constitutional and common law grounds. The authors propose new commitment criteria based on incompetency to decide about(More)
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