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Continuous cell movement requires the coordination of protrusive forces at the leading edge with contractile forces at the rear of the cell. Myosin II is required to generate the necessary contractile force to facilitate retraction; however, Dictyostelium cells that lack myosin II (mhcA-) are still motile. To directly investigate the role of myosin II in(More)
Fish keratocytes can generate rearward directed traction forces within front portions of the lamellipodium, suggesting that a retrograde flow of actin may also occur here but this was not detected by previous photoactivation experiments. To investigate the relationship between retrograde flow and traction force generation, we have transfected keratocytes(More)
In conjunction with surface chemistry, the mechanical properties of cell culture substrates provide important biological cues that affect cell behavior including growth, differentiation, spreading, and migration. The phenomenon has led to the increased use of biological and synthetic polymer-based flexible substrates in cell culture studies. However, widely(More)
BACKGROUND This paper examines neighborhood, outlet, and server characteristics related to successful purchases of alcohol by intoxicated patrons and underage drinkers at alcohol establishments. It is hypothesized that outlets in commercial areas near to other premises, with poor exterior maintenance, much advertising, and inexperienced youthful servers(More)
Investigations into the possible roles of human HSPB1 in aging have focused on its role as a molecular chaperone protecting partially folded or unfolded proteins, particularly during oxidative stress. A thorough analysis of potential roles of HSPB1 in aging cells has been hampered by a limited knowledge of its functions in living cells. Most studies have(More)
Cells can sense and respond to different types of mechanical stimuli that can lead to changes in rate of cell division, cell orientation, cell motility, and gene expression. There is rapidly growing interest in understanding how these processes are regulated by mechano-chemical signaling mechanisms. The movement offish epithelial keratocytes is regulated by(More)
Human heat shock 27-kDa protein 1 (HSPB1)/heat shock protein (Hsp) 27 is a small heat shock protein which is thought to have several roles within the cell. One of these roles includes regulating actin filament dynamics in cell movement, since Hsp27 has previously been found to inhibit actin polymerization in vitro. In this study, the role of Hsp27 in(More)
The activation of stretch-activated calcium channels (SACs) in keratocytes can induce spatially coordinated increases in traction stress that promote protrusion at the cell front, while simultaneously inducing retraction at the rear. To investigate how this occurs, we correlated calcium-induced changes in traction stress with alterations in cell speed and(More)
The coordination of protrusion with retraction is essential for continuous cell movement. In fish keratocytes the activation of stretch-activated calcium channels, and the resulting increase in intracellular calcium, trigger release of the rear cell margin when forward movement is impeded. Although it is likely that retraction involves a calcium-dependent(More)
OBJECTIVES This study examines factors associated with availability of tobacco products for marijuana cigars (i.e., blunts) in 50 non-contiguous mid-sized California communities. METHODS The study is based on data collected in 943 tobacco outlets. Neighborhood demographics, community adult marijuana prevalence, medical marijuana policy and access to(More)