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Genomes of eusocial insects code for dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity and social organization. We compared the genomes of seven ants, the honeybee, and various solitary insects to examine whether eusocial lineages share distinct features of genomic organization. Each ant lineage contains ∼4000 novel genes, but only 64 of these genes are conserved(More)
Gene expression patterns are a key feature in understanding gene function, notably in development. Comparing gene expression patterns between animals is a major step in the study of gene function as well as of animal evolution. It also provides a link between genes and phenotypes. Thus we have developed Bgee, a database designed to compare expression(More)
The evolution of ants is marked by remarkable adaptations that allowed the development of very complex social systems. To identify how ant-specific adaptations are associated with patterns of molecular evolution, we searched for signs of positive selection on amino-acid changes in proteins. We identified 24 functional categories of genes which were enriched(More)
It has been shown that the neurotropin brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and its high-affinity receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase receptor type B (TrkB), contribute to the central control of food intake. BDNF has previously been implicated as a probable downstream effector of melanocortinergic signaling within the ventromedial hypothalamus, and we(More)
Deoxynivalenol (DON), one of the most abundant trichothecenes found on cereals, has been implicated in mycotoxicoses in both humans and farm animals. Low-dose toxicity is characterized by reduced weight gain, diminished nutritional efficiency, and immunologic effects. The levels and patterns of human food commodity contamination justify that DON consumption(More)
DNA methylation is an important epigenetic regulator of gene expression. Recent studies have revealed widespread associations between genetic variation and methylation levels. However, the mechanistic links between genetic variation and methylation remain unclear. To begin addressing this gap, we collected methylation data at ∼300,000 loci in lymphoblastoid(More)
We analyze here the relation between alternative splicing and gene duplication in light of recent genomic data, with a focus on the human genome. We show that the previously reported negative correlation between level of alternative splicing and family size no longer holds true. We clarify this pattern and show that it is sufficiently explained by two(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) constitute an important class of gene regulators. While models have been proposed to explain their appearance and expansion, the validation of these models has been difficult due to the lack of comparative studies. Here, we analyze miRNA evolutionary patterns in two mammals, human and mouse, in relation to the age of miRNA families. In(More)
Physiological regulations of energy balance and body weight imply highly adaptive mechanisms which match caloric intake to caloric expenditure. In the central nervous system, the regulation of appetite relies on complex neurocircuitry which disturbance may alter energy balance and result in anorexia or obesity. Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene, is one(More)