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Type II toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are generally composed of two genes organized in an operon, encoding a labile antitoxin and a stable toxin. They were first discovered on plasmids where they contribute to plasmid stability by a phenomenon denoted as 'addiction', and subsequently in bacterial chromosomes. To discover novel families of antitoxins and(More)
Horizontal gene transfer shapes the genomes of prokaryotes by allowing rapid acquisition of novel adaptive functions. Conjugation allows the broadest range and the highest gene transfer input per transfer event. While conjugative plasmids have been studied for decades, the number and diversity of integrative conjugative elements (ICE) in prokaryotes(More)
BACKGROUND Although often viewed as elements "at the service of" bacteria, plasmids exhibit replication and maintenance mechanisms that make them purely "selfish DNA" candidates. Toxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are a spectacular example of such mechanisms: a gene coding for a cytotoxic stable protein is preceded by a gene coding for an unstable antitoxin. The(More)
Genetic exchange by conjugation is responsible for the spread of resistance, virulence, and social traits among prokaryotes. Recent works unraveled the functioning of the underlying type IV secretion systems (T4SS) and its distribution and recruitment for other biological processes (exaptation), notably pathogenesis. We analyzed the phylogeny of key(More)
T oxin-antitoxin (TA) systems are composed of two elements: a toxic protein and an antitoxin which is either an RNA (type I and III) or a protein (type II). Type II systems are abundant in bacterial genomes in which they move via horizontal gene transfer. They are generally composed of two genes organized in an operon, encoding a toxin and a labile(More)
Conjugation of DNA through a type IV secretion system (T4SS) drives horizontal gene transfer. Yet little is known on the diversity of these nanomachines. We previously found that T4SS can be divided in eight classes based on the phylogeny of the only ubiquitous protein of T4SS (VirB4). Here, we use an ab initio approach to identify protein families(More)
Rotifers of Class Bdelloidea are remarkable in having evolved for millions of years, apparently without males and meiosis. In addition, they are unusually resistant to desiccation and ionizing radiation and are able to repair hundreds of radiation-induced DNA double-strand breaks per genome with little effect on viability or reproduction. Because specific(More)