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Gorillas are humans' closest living relatives after chimpanzees, and are of comparable importance for the study of human origins and evolution. Here we present the assembly and analysis of a genome sequence for the western lowland gorilla, and compare the whole genomes of all extant great ape genera. We propose a synthesis of genetic and fossil evidence(More)
We present a new method for detecting coevolving sites in molecules. The method relies on a set of aligned sequences (nucleic acid or protein) and uses Markov models of evolution to map the substitutions that occurred at each site onto the branches of the underlying phylogenetic tree. This mapping takes into account the uncertainty over ancestral states and(More)
We search the complete orangutan genome for regions where humans are more closely related to orangutans than to chimpanzees due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS) in the ancestor of human and chimpanzees. The search uses our recently developed coalescent hidden Markov model (HMM) framework. We find ILS present in ∼1% of the genome, and that the ancestral(More)
BACKGROUND A large number of bioinformatics applications in the fields of bio-sequence analysis, molecular evolution and population genetics typically share input/output methods, data storage requirements and data analysis algorithms. Such common features may be conveniently bundled into re-usable libraries, which enable the rapid development of new methods(More)
Why the autosomal recombination rate differs between female and male meiosis in most species has been a genetic enigma since the early study of meiosis. Some hypotheses have been put forward to explain this widespread phenomenon and, up to now, only one fact has emerged clearly: In species in which meiosis is achiasmate in one sex, it is the heterogametic(More)
BACKGROUND Accurately modeling the sequence substitution process is required for the correct estimation of evolutionary parameters, be they phylogenetic relationships, substitution rates or ancestral states; it is also crucial to simulate realistic data sets. Such simulation procedures are needed to estimate the null-distribution of complex statistics, an(More)
'Orang-utan' is derived from a Malay term meaning 'man of the forest' and aptly describes the southeast Asian great apes native to Sumatra and Borneo. The orang-utan species, Pongo abelii (Sumatran) and Pongo pygmaeus (Bornean), are the most phylogenetically distant great apes from humans, thereby providing an informative perspective on hominid evolution.(More)
Two African apes are the closest living relatives of humans: the chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) and the bonobo (Pan paniscus). Although they are similar in many respects, bonobos and chimpanzees differ strikingly in key social and sexual behaviours, and for some of these traits they show more similarity with humans than with each other. Here we report the(More)
With incomplete lineage sorting (ILS), the genealogy of closely related species differs along their genomes. The amount of ILS depends on population parameters such as the ancestral effective population sizes and the recombination rate, but also on the number of generations between speciation events. We use a hidden Markov model parameterized according to(More)
Due to genetic variation in the ancestor of two populations or two species, the divergence time for DNA sequences from two populations is variable along the genome. Within genomic segments all bases will share the same divergence-because they share a most recent common ancestor-when no recombination event has occurred to split them apart. The size of these(More)