Julien Barbier

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Bacterial Shiga-like toxins are virulence factors that constitute a significant public health threat worldwide, and the plant toxin ricin is a potential bioterror weapon. To gain access to their cytosolic target, ribosomal RNA, these toxins follow the retrograde transport route from the plasma membrane to the endoplasmic reticulum, via endosomes and the(More)
We have isolated delta-conotoxin EVIA (delta-EVIA), a conopeptide in Conus ermineus venom that contains 32 amino acid residues and a six-cysteine/four-loop framework similar to that of previously described omega-, delta-, microO-, and kappa-conotoxins. However, it displays low sequence homology with the latter conotoxins. delta-EVIA inhibits Na+ channel(More)
Regulation of thrombin activity may be required during skeletal muscle differentiation since the thrombin tissue inhibitor protease nexin-1 appears at the myotube stage before being localized at the neuromuscular synapse. Here, we have used a model of rat fetal myotube primary cultures to study the effect of thrombin on acetylcholine receptor (AChR)(More)
Xestospongin B, a macrocyclic bis-1-oxaquinolizidine alkaloid extracted from the marine sponge Xestospongia exigua, was highly purified and tested for its ability to block inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP(3))-induced Ca(2+) release. In a concentration-dependent manner xestospongin B displaced [(3)H]IP(3) from both rat cerebellar membranes and rat skeletal(More)
Acute inhibition of synaptic acetylcholinesterase (AChE) is fatal to normal animals, but AChE-knockout mice (AChE-/-) expressing normal levels of butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) could live to adulthood without AChE expression. The present study was undertaken to determine whether compensatory mechanisms occur in the mutant that allow an effective neuromuscular(More)
Delta-conotoxin EVIA, from Conus ermineus, is a 32-residue polypeptide cross-linked by three disulfide bonds forming a four-loop framework. delta-Conotoxin EVIA is the first conotoxin known to inhibit sodium channel inactivation in neuronal membranes from amphibians and mammals (subtypes rNa(v)1.2a, rNa(v)1.3, and rNa(v)1.6), without affecting rat skeletal(More)
Contryphan-Vn is a D-tryptophan-containing disulfide-constrained nonapeptide isolated from the venom of Conus ventricosus, the single Mediterranean cone snail species. The structure of the synthetic Contryphan-Vn has been determined by NMR spectroscopy. Unique among Contryphans, Contryphan-Vn displays the peculiar presence of a Lys-Trp dyad, reminiscent of(More)
Simkania negevensis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen that grows in amoeba or human cells within a membrane-bound vacuole forming endoplasmic reticulum (ER) contact sites. The membrane of this Simkania-containing vacuole (SnCV) is a critical host-pathogen interface whose origin and molecular interactions with cellular organelles remain poorly(More)
Glycerotoxin (GLTx) is capable of stimulating neurotransmitter release at the frog neuromuscular junction by directly interacting with N-type Ca2+ (Cav2.2) channels. Here we have utilized GLTx as a tool to investigate the functionality of Cav2.2 channels in various mammalian neuronal preparations. We first adapted a fluorescent-based high-throughput assay(More)
The Retro-2 molecule protects cells against Shiga toxins by specifically blocking retrograde transport from early endosomes to the trans-Golgi network. A SAR study has been carried out to identify more potent compounds. Cyclization and modifications of Retro-2 led to a compound with roughly 100-fold improvement of the EC50 against Shiga toxin cytotoxicity(More)